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Verification and Implementation of Strut-And-Tie Model In

Verification and Implementation of Strut-And-Tie Model In

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Verification and Implementation of Strut-and-Tie Model in LRFD Bridge DesignSpecifications
 Requested by:
American Association of State Highwayand Transportation Officials (AASHTO)Highway Subcommittee on Bridge and Structures
 Prepared by:
Barney T. Martin, Jr., Ph.D., P.E.Modjeski and Masters, Inc.301 Manchester Road, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603David H. Sanders, Ph.D.University of Nevada RenoNovember, 2007
The information contained in this report was prepared as part of NCHRP Project 20-07, Task 217, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board.
 
iiAcknowledgementsThis study was requested by the American Association of State Highway and TransportationOfficials (AASHTO), and conducted as part of National Cooperative Highway ResearchProgram (NCHRP) Project 20-07. The NCHRP is supported by annual voluntary contributionsfrom the state Departments of Transportation. Project 20-07 is intended to fund quick responsestudies on behalf of the AASHTO Standing Committee on Highways. The report was preparedby Barney T. Martin Jr., Ph.D., P.E., Wagdy Wassef, Ph.D., P.E. and Thomas A. Cole of Modjeski and Masters, Inc. and David H. Sanders, Ph.D., P.E. and Neil Bahen, GraduateStudent, of the University of Nevada Reno. The work was guided by a task group whichincluded Sue Hida, William Nickas, Steve Stroh, Chris White, and Reid Castrodale. The projectwas managed by David B. Beal, P.E., NCHRP Senior Program Officer.
Disclaimer
The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency thatperformed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board or itssponsors. This report has not been reviewed or accepted by the Transportation Research Board'sExecutive Committee or the Governing Board of the National Research Council.
 
iii
CONTENTSCHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION TO STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS
..................................11.1
 
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................11.2
 
ELEMENTS OF A STRUT-AND-TIE MODEL.......................................................11.2.1 STRUTS.......................................................................................................21.2.2 TIES.............................................................................................................31.2.3 NODES........................................................................................................41.3
 
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT..............................................................................51.4
 
PROJECT OBJECTIVES...........................................................................................6
CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE SEARCH (TASK 1)
..............................................................72.1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................72.2 OVERVIEW OF AVAILABLE LITERATURE........................................................7
CHAPTER 3 – APPLICATION OF THE STRUT-AND-TIE MODEL (TASKS 2 & 3)
....93.1 WHEN IS IT USED?..................................................................................................93.2 PROCEDURE FOR STRUT-AND-TIE MODELING............................................113.2.1 DELINEATING D-REGIONS..................................................................123.2.2 DETERMINING BOUNDARY CONDITIONS OF D-REGION............123.2.3 SKETCH THE FLOW OF FORCES.........................................................123.2.4 DEVELOPING A TRUSS MODEL..........................................................123.2.5 CALCULATING FORCES IN STRUTS AND TIES...............................133.2.6 SELECTING STEEL AREA FOR TIES...................................................133.2.7 CHECKING STRESS LEVEL IN STRUTS AND NODES.....................133.2.8 DETAILING REINFORCEMENT...........................................................14
CHAPTER 4 – COMPARISONS OF AASHTO LRFD STM REQUIREMENTS(TASK 2)
........................................................................................................................15
 
4.1 COMPARISONS TO OTHER DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS ................................154.1.1 PURPOSE OF DESIGN SPECIFICATION COMPARISON..................154.1.2 SYNOPSIS OF DESIGN SPECIFICATION COMPARISON.................154.2 COMPARISONS TO LABORATORY TESTING RESULTS...............................254.2.1 DEEP BEAM TEST COMPARISONS.....................................................254.2.1.1 EXAMPLE CALCULATION-DEEP BEAM MODEL 2..........314.2.2 DEEP BEAM WITH OPENING TEST COMPARISONS.......................404.2.3 PILE CAP TEST COMPARISONS..........................................................484.2.4 INSIGHT GAINED FROM TEST COMPARISONS...............................534.3 COMPARISONS TO STRUCTURES DESIGNED BASED ON PASTPRACTICES.......................................................................................................534.3.1 INVERTED TEE BEAM...........................................................................544.3.2 MULTI-COLUMN BENT.........................................................................644.3.3 PILE FOOTING.........................................................................................774.4 COMMENTARY FROM DESIGN FIRMS.............................................................874.5 GAPS AND NEEDED GUIDANCE IN THE AASHTO LRFD STM....................90

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