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Series and Parallel Resistive CircuitsRatings: (0)|Views: 385|Likes: 4

Published by venkatasaihanuman

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/26415414/Series-and-Parallel-Resistive-Circuits

07/12/2013

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Series and Parallel Resistive Circuits

Physics Lab VIII

Objective

In the set of experiments, the theoretical expressions used to calculate the total resistancein a combination of resistors will be tested experimentally. In addition, the expecteddistribution of the voltage and current to each resistor in a network will also be tested.

Equipment List

DC Voltage Source, Three Resistors with resistance between 100 Ω and 900 Ω, TwoMultimeters, Various Connecting Leads.

Theoretical Background

According to Ohm’s Law, the current and voltage in a resistor are related by the resistanceof the resistor,

V

=

IR,

(1)where

V

is the voltage across the resistor,

I

is the current ﬂowing through the resistor, and

R

is the resistance of the resistor. In this lab, combinations of resistors will be considered.There are two ways in which a pair of resistors can be connected to a battery. The ﬁrstway is to connect the resistors one after the other, as shown in Figure 1. This type of arrangement is known as a

series

arrangement of the resistors.

2 Series & Parallel Resistive CircuitsFigure 1: Series Combination of ResistorsIn this case, the same current ﬂows through both resistors while the voltage from thebattery is split between the two resistors,

I

total

=

I

1

=

I

2

, V

total

=

V

1

+

V

2

.

(2)In this equation,

I

1

is the current through the ﬁrst resistor,

I

2

is the current throughthe second resistor,

V

total

is the total voltage supplied by the battery,

V

1

is the voltageacross the ﬁrst resistor, and

V

2

is the voltage across the second resistor. SubstitutingOhm’s Law into the voltage condition, and noting that the same current ﬂows throughthe circuit, gives

I

total

R

total

=

I

1

R

1

+

I

2

R

2

=

⇒

R

total

=

R

1

+

R

2

.

(3)In this equation,

R

1

is the resistance of the ﬁrst resistor and

R

2

is the resistance of thesecond resistor. For more than two resistors, the total resistance is just the sum of theindividual resistances,

R

total,series

=

R

1

+

R

2

+

R

3

+

...

=

N

i

=1

R

i

.

(4)The other possible combination of two resistors involves connecting the ends of theresistors to the battery. This arrangement, shown in Figure 2, is known as a

parallel

combination.Figure 2: Parallel Combination of ResistorsIn this case, the voltage across each resistor is equal to the voltage of the batterywhile the total current in the circuit is split between the two resistors,

V

total

=

V

1

=

V

2

, I

total

=

I

1

+

I

2

.

(5)v:F06

Series & Parallel Resistive Circuits 3Substituting Ohm’s Law into the current condition, and noting that all of the voltagesare the same, yields,

V

total

R

total

=

V

1

R

1

+

V

2

R

2

=

⇒

1

R

total

=1

R

1

+1

R

2

.

(6)For more than one resistor in parallel, based upon this relation, the inverse of the totalresistance is the sum of inverses of the individual resistors,1

R

total,parallel

=1

R

1

+1

R

2

+1

R

3

+

...

=

N

i

=1

1

R

i

.

(7)In this set of experiment, these theoretical expressions for the total resistance of a com-bination of resistors will be tested, along with the conditions that were used to derivethem.

Procedure

Individual Resistors

In this section, the resistance of the individual resistors will be determined.1. The colors on each resistor indicate, roughly, the resistance of each resistor. Thecolor of the band closest to the end of the resistor gives the ﬁrst digit of theresistance. The color of the next band gives the second digit of the resistance. Thethird band color is the power of ten that multiplies the digits indicated by the ﬁrsttwo bands. The last band indicates the error, as a percentage, in the resistance. Usethis information, along with Table 1, to determine the resistance of each resistor,and the uncertainty in the resistance, based upon the color code. Record the valueof the resistance and the uncertainty on your data table.Color Number Multiplier Tolerance (%)Black 0 1Brown 1 10

1

Red 2 10

2

Orange 3 10

3

Yellow 4 10

4

Green 5 10

5

Blue 6 10

6

Violet 7 10

7

Grey 8 10

8

White 9 10

9

Gold 10

−

1

5 %Silver 10

−

2

10 %Colorless 20 %Table 1: Color Code for Resistorsv:F06

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