Department of Mechanical Engineering,Technische Universitaet Darmstadt,Petersenstrasse 30,64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Simon Yu Ching Man
School of Mechanical and AerospaceEngineering,Nanyang Technological University,50 Nanyang Avenue,Singapore 639798, Singapore
Department of Mechanical Engineering,University of Tokyo,Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Center of Smart Interfaces,Technische Universitaet Darmstadt,Darmstadt D-64287, Germany
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Technische Universitaet Darmstadt,Petersenstrasse 30,64287 Darmstadt, Germanye-mail: email@example.com
Flow Visualization and LocalMeasurement of ForcedConvection Heat Transfer in aMicrotube
The pressure drop and the convective heat transfer characteristics of ethanol and water in a circular tube with a diameter of 600
m with and without phase change have beenstudied experimentally. The test section consists of a glass tube coated with a transparent indium tin oxide heater ﬁlm. For single-phase liquid ﬂow (including superheated liquid)it was found that the measured Nusselt numbers and friction factors are in good agree-ment with the theoretical values expected from Poiseuille ﬂow. Subsequently, the boilingheat transfer of ethanol was studied. It was found that boiling with bubble growth in bothupstream and downstream directions leaving behind a thin evaporating liquid ﬁlm on thetube wall is the dominant phase change process. Wavy patterns on the ﬁlm surfaceindicate shear forces between vapor and liquid phase during slug ﬂow. Temporary dryout phenomena occur even at a low mean vapor quality due to ﬁlm rupture as a result of ﬁlminstabilities. Local Nusselt numbers are calculated for the two-phase ﬂow at different heat ﬂuxes and Reynolds numbers. Compared with single-phase ﬂow the heat transfer isenhanced by a factor of 3–8.
Heat and mass transfer in microchannels have been in the focusof intense research activities in the past decade due to their rel-evance in ﬁelds such as electronic equipment cooling and lab-on-a-chip technology. With regard to electronics, the heat ﬂux densityin microelectronic circuits has been constantly increasing, de-manding more efﬁcient cooling technologies. In this context, boil-ing heat transfer in microchannels or microtubes has been identi-ﬁed as a method for removing high heat ﬂuxes.Despite the amount of research work in this area, still numerousunexplained phenomena exist and conﬂicting results have beenreported by different researchers around the globe. For example,the Nusselt numbers for single-phase ﬂow were found to varyfrom values less than the corresponding value for the Poiseuilleﬂow
to values three times higher than that. The friction factorsfor microchannels and tubes have also shown scattering results,and many researchers attributed the effects to the surface condi-tions of the channels. A good summary of the topic can readily befound in the papers by Sobhan and Garimella
, andmore recently Morini
. The scatter of the experimental resultsmay be, in part, due to difﬁculties associated with the experimen-tal setup and the quantiﬁcations of uncertainty levels, the tempera-ture measurements, in particular. Due to the size of the tubesconsidered, direct temperature measurements on the inner walland in the liquid were not possible; they were normally derivedfrom the measurements of the outer wall temperature. Lelea et al.
and Celata et al.
are among the few who have shownresults that are close to the predictions of the classical theory.Their experiments were conducted in a vacuum chamber to mini-mize heat losses.For experiments involving phase change, one of the prime in-terests has been on the visualization of the bubble formation pro-cess. In many of the experiments previously conducted, nucleateboiling, plug ﬂow, slug ﬂow, and annular ﬂow were identiﬁed ascommon ﬂow patterns for microchannels and microtubes
. Incontrast to macrosize tubes, in microtubes these ﬂow patternstypically alternate with one another even at constant heat andmass ﬂuxes. Besides these, unique microchannel ﬂow patternshave also been described. Hetsroni et al.
found a rapid bubblegrowth phenomenon and called it explosive evaporation due to theshort timescales observed. Zhang et al.
postulated differentboiling mechanisms depending on the channel size. For channelslarger than 100
m in diameter, they expect nucleate boiling tobe the major heat transfer process. In channels smaller than50
m, they identiﬁed explosive boiling without bubble nucle-ation as being dominant. Hardt et al.
observed explosive boil-ing processes with subsequent ﬁlm evaporation in channels with
m and assumed bubble nucleation to trigger this process.In the present investigation, an indium tin oxide
coatedmicroglass tube has been used for heat and mass transfer studies.The arrangement can effectively generate a uniform heat ﬂuxalong the outer surface of the tube without providing optical ob-struction to the test section. By employing a high speed camera,the phase change at high heat ﬂuxes could be visualized clearly.
2 Experimental Arrangement and Procedure
Figure 1 shows a schematic view of the experimental setupused in the present investigation. Distilled and degassed water anddegassed ethanol are used as the working ﬂuids for the convectiveheat transfer experiments. The working ﬂuid is delivered to thetest section via a HPLC Pump
GL Sciences, PU 714
. The ﬂow
Corresponding author.Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the J
. Manuscript received October 20, 2008; ﬁnal manuscript re-ceived July 31, 2009; published online January 4, 2010. Assoc. Editor: YogeshJaluria.
Journal of Heat Transfer
MARCH 2010, Vol. 132
/ 031702-1Copyright © 2010 by ASME
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