Minnesota Murstein and Fryer's article on the concept of projection (1959)surely reflects laudable motives, and their review of relevant research containsa number of astute observations. There appear to be, however, rather glaringfaults in formulation, categorization and definition.Let us agree that "if 'projection' means everything it means nothing" (Murray,1951, p. 13). It is then difficult to see, except by Murstein and Fryer's finaldefinition of projection (1959, p. 370), why they quoted Zilboorg's quote fromthe Malleus Maleficarum (Murstein & Fryer, 1959, p. 353). Hallucination, notprojection, is the term usually applied when "devils stir up the innerperceptions" so "that they appear to be a new impression—from exteriorthings." Quotes from Murphy and Sears (Murstein & Fryer, 1959, p. 354) areinteresting but will be seen to bear more relation to "New Look" perceptionthan to projection. We shall also see that the admonition above had noapparent effect on their final definition of projection.One can take issue with the authors' classification system on the followinggrounds. Unless we wish to emasculate the term "projection," it would seemappropriate to use it only when the process referred to involves the attributionof internal characteristics to some external person or objects. Inaccurateextension of the term may well have played a major role in the confusionrecognized, but, nevertheless, added to by Murstein and Fryer.Projection is defined as "the process of unwittingly attributing one's own traits,attitudes or subjective processes to others" (English & English, 1958). Inrelation to this definition the Murstein and Fryer classification of "attributiveprojection" is clearly redundant and relatively useless for purposes of classification. A more useful classification would result from considering thepresumed purposes of the mechanism.Two major categories are immediately obvious. We might term one typedefensive projection and the other predictive projection. In the case of defensive projection the mechanism is seen to operate in defense of the ego.