NOVEMBER 2009 | VOLUME 12 | NUMBER 11 1
Editorial Advisory Panel
University College London, UK
Queens University, Canada
Stanford University, USA
University College London, UK
University of Oxford, UK
University of Liverpool, UK
Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Germany
Lunds Universitet, Sweden
University of California, Santa
Naval Research Laboratory, USA
Richard A. L. Jones
University of Sheffield, UK
Cardiff University, UK
Tae Won Noh
Seoul National University, Korea
University of Florida, USA
Marshall Stoneham FRS
University College London, UK
Helena Van Swygenhoven
Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland
Air Force Research Laboratory, USA
Harvard University, USA
Jackie Yi-Ru Ying
Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore
Elsevier Ltd.The Boulevard, Langford Lane,Kidlington, OX5 1GB, UK
Commercial Editor Jonathan AgbenyegaE-mail: J.Agbenye@elsevier.com
Lin LucasE-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Kevin PartridgeE-mail: email@example.com
Guy PlowmanE-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Free circulation enquiries
, Tower House,Sovereign Park, Market HarboroughLE16 9EF, UKTel: +44 (0)1858 439 601Fax: +44 (0)1858 434 958E-mail: email@example.com
Subscription orders & payments
(ISSN 1369-7021) is published 10times per year by Elsevier Ltd. The Boulevard,Langford Lane, Kidlington, OX5 1GB, UKPrice:
209 / US$234 / ¥27900Europe/ROW Tel: +31 20 485 3757USA Tel: +1 212 633 3730© Elsevier Ltd. 2009
All material published in
iscopyright Elsevier Ltd.Annual subscription price in the USA US$ 234(valid in North, Central and South America),including air speed delivery. Periodicalpostage paid at Rahway NJ and additionalmailing offices.USA POSTMASTER: Send change of address:
, Elsevier, 6277 Sea HarborDrive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800.AIRFREIGHT AND MAILING in USA byMercury International Limited, 365, BlairRoad, Avenel, NJ 07001.
This journal and the individual contributions containedin it are protected under copyright by Elsevier Ltd, andthe following terms and conditions apply to their use:
Single photocopies of single articlesmay be made for personal use as allowed by nationalcopyright laws. Permission of the Publisher and paymentof a fee is required for all other photocopying, includingmultiple or systematic copying, copying for advertisingor promotional purposes, resale, and all forms ofdocument delivery. Special rates are available foreducational institutions that wish to make photocopiesfor non-profit educational classroom use.Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier GlobalRights Department, P.O. Box 800, Oxford OX5 1DX, UK;phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333,e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. You may also contactGlobal Rights directly through Elsevier’s homepage (http://www.elsevier.com), by selecting ‘Obtaining Permissions’.In the USA, users may clear permissions and makepayments through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.,222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; phone:(+1) (978) 7508400, fax: (+1) (978) 7504744, and inthe UK through the Copyright Licensing Agency RapidClearance Service (CLARCS), 90 Tottenham Court Road,London W1P 0LP, UK; phone: +44 (0)20 7631 5555; fax:+44 (0)20 7631 5500. Other countries may have a localreprographic rights agency for payments.
Subscribers may reproduce tables ofcontents or prepare lists of articles including abstractsfor internal circulation within their institutions.Permission of the Publisher is required for resale ordistribution outside the institution.Permission of the Publisher is required for all otherderivative works, including compilations and translations.
Electronic Storage or Usage:
Permission of the Publisheris required to store or use electronically any materialcontained in this journal, including any article or partof an article.Except as outlined above, no part of this publicationmay be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,without prior written permission of the Publisher.Address permissions requests to: Elsevier Global RightsDepartment, at the mail, fax and e-mail addressesnoted above.
No responsibility is assumed by the Publisherfor any injury and/or damage to persons or property asa matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise,or from any use or operation of any methods, products,instructions or ideas contained in the material herein.Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, inparticular, independent verification of diagnoses anddrug dosages should be made.Although all advertising material is expected toconform to ethical (medical) standards, inclusion inthis publication does not constitute a guarantee orendorsement of the quality or value of such product orof the claims made of it by its manufacturer.Printed by Headley Brothers Ltd, Kent, UK
ISSN 1369-7021 Journal number: 03069
Editor, Materials Today
This month we take a look at some of the fascinatingdevelopments in the world of nuclear fission and fusionand issues that have plagued scientists for years. We’llalso take a look at how some of these developments willimpact on our overall energy usage through the 21st Century and beyond.You cannot pick up a paper or turn on the radio withouthearing some reference to our environment; greenhousegases, sustainable energy sources, etc. As a nation weare becoming increasingly aware of the challenges facingour world and the consequences if we do not change ourenergy consumption patterns.The challenge facing us today is not only in finding suitableways to control and harness the energy but to createcommercially viable routes to suit our consumption needs.At the moment there is somewhere in the region of over430 nuclear fission reactors in the world providing about15% of the worlds supply of electricity. Research hasimproved the overall efficiency of these reactors but thereare still many hurdles to jump in finally building reactorsthat will withstand the ever stringent safety tests beingemployed.Fusion power is also not without its challenges; we arecurrently witnessing a surge in interest and investment inlooking at how fusion can assist in not only commercialpower generating plants but also in military applications.Whatever the outcome we are on route to uncover somefundamental issues around energy and how materials usedto contain these reactions behave.Our first paper takes on this very theme, Steven Zinkleand Jeremy Busby from Oak Ridge National Laboratorypresent a fascinating review on structural materials used ina number of situations for fission and fusion energy.The discovery and design of nuclear fuels is discussedin our second paper, the author Marius Stan walks usthrough the multi scale models and simulations used topredict irradiation effects on properties such as thermalconductivity, oxygen diffusivity, and thermal expansion.Atomic scale probing, and modelling can provide agreater understanding of how materials behave in someof the conditions found in fission and fusion reactors,Emmanuelle Marquis et al., from the University of Oxfordand National Nuclear Laboratory elaborate.The science of plasma facing materials for fusion power isan important area of research and D. Duffy at UCL expandson some of the challenges and breakthroughs here.M. Samaras from the Paul Scherrer institute looks at bubblenucleation and growth, reviewing some of the modellingparadigms used to understand the mechanisms involved.Our final paper from Ramirez- Cusesta et al., looks atsome of the fundamental properties of hydrogen storageand the design of new hydrogen storage materials.
Can fusion and fissionharness a new hope forour energy needs?