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Table Of Contents

Introduction
New Format of the AP Chemistry Exam
Questions Commonly Asked
Strategies for Taking the AP Chemistry Exam
Section I: The Multiple-Choice Section
Section II: The Free-Response (Essay) Section
Atoms
The Aufbau Principle
Noble Gas Core Abbreviation
Bohr Model
Quantum Numbers
Diamagnetism vs. Paramagnetism
Important People, Experiments, and Theories
Energy and Other Relationships
Answers and Explanations
Multiple Choice
Free Response
Periodic Table
Periodic Trends
Summary of Periodic Trends
Chemical Properties and Periodicity
Metals vs. Nonmetals
Free-Response Questions
Bonding
Lewis Dot Diagrams
Incomplete Octets
Expanded Octets
Ionic Bonds
Lattice Energy
Covalent Bonds
Bond Length
Intermolecular and Intramolecular Forces
Network Covalent Bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
Metallic Bonding
Atomic Radii
Covalent Radii
Van der Waals Radii
Radicals
Bond Strength
Resonance
Molecular Geometry and Hybridization
Molecular Geometry
Sigma and Pi Bonds
Dipole Moments
Hybridization
Stoichiometry
Significant Figures
Log10and Natural Log (ln)
Factor-Label Method
Moles
Balancing Equations
Determination of Empirical and Molecular Formulas
Percentage Composition
Average Atomic Mass
Limiting Reactant
Theoretical and Actual Yield
Multiple-Choice Questions
Gases
Properties of Gases
Mole Fractions
Pressure and Temperature
Gas Laws
Kinetic Molecular Theory
The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
Answers and Explanation
Liquids and Solids
Properties of Liquids
Properties of Water
Properties of Solids
Phase Changes
Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium
Heat of Vaporization and Boiling Point
Liquid-Solid Equilibrium
Solid-Vapor Equilibrium
Phase Diagrams
Thermodynamics
Energy
Temperature vs. Heat
A System vs. Surroundings
State Functions
Standard State
Laws of Thermodynamics
Enthalpy
Hess’s Law
Heat of Formation (∆H°f)
Specific Heat and Heat Capacity
Calorimetry
Entropy (∆S)
Gibbs Free Energy (∆G)
Energy Diagrams
Catalyst Added
Solutions
Molarity
Molality
Density and Percent
Mole Fraction and Fractional Distillation
Colligative Properties
Boiling Point Elevation
Freezing Point Depression
Vapor Pressure Lowering (Raoult’s Law)
Osmotic Pressure
Equilibrium*
Interpretation of K
Le Chatelier’s Principle
Reaction Quotient, Qcor Qp
Free Energy and Equilibrium Constants
Common Ion Effect
Brønsted-Lowry Theory
Arrhenius Theory
Lewis Acid-Base Theory
Conjugate Acids and Bases
pH and pOH
Ka and pKa
Kb and pKb
Polyprotic Acids
Oxoacids
Acid-Base Properties of Common Ions in Aqueous Solution
Salts
Molecular Structure and Acid Strength
Titration
Titration Curves
% Ionization
%ionization
Buffers
Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
Indicators
Anhydrides
Amphoteric Substances
Kinetics
Reaction Rates
Zero Order
Catalysis
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox)
Oxidation States
Oxidation
Reduction
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Activity Series
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions
Galvanic (Voltaic) Cells
Electrolytic Cells
Spontaneity
Voltage and Equilibrium
Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reactions
Types of Nuclear Decay
Alpha (α) Emission
Gamma (γ)Rays
Balancing Nuclear Equations
Nuclear Stability
Half-life
Binding Energy and Mass Defect
Fission vs. Fusion
Organic Chemistry
Properties of Organic Compounds
Condensed Formulas
Hydrocarbons
Alkanes
Alkenes
Alkynes
Cyclic Hydrocarbons
Ring (Aromatic) Compounds
Functional Groups
Alcohols
Organic (Carboxylic) Acids
Amides
Amines
Aldehydes
Ketones
Esters
Ethers
Isomers
Structural Isomerism
Stereisomerism
Chemical Reactions
Solubility Rules
Writing Net Ionic Reactions
X. Metallic Oxide + Nonmetallic Oxide →Complex (non-binary) Salt
XI. Acid + Metal →Salt + Hydrogen Gas
XIII. Strong Acid + Salt of a Weak Acid →Salt of Strong Acid + Weak Acid
XIV. Weak Acid + Weak Base →Conjugate Base + Conjugate Acid
XV. Weak Acid + Strong Base →Water + Conjugate Base
XVI. Strong Acid + Weak Base →Conjugate Acid
XVII. Acid + Carbonate →Salt + CO2+ Water
XIX. Redox
XX. Precipitation Reactions
XXI. Complex Ions
XXII. Strong Acid + Strong Base →Salt + H2O (neutralization)
XXIII. Organic Reactions
Quick Quiz Answers
Practice Sets
Practice Set #1
Practice Set #2
Practice Set #3
Practice Set #4
Practice Set Answers
Laboratory Experiments
Experiment 1: Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Compound
Experiment 2: Determination of the Percentage of Water in a Hydrate
Experiment 3: Determination of Molar Mass byVapor Density
Experiment 4: Determination of Molecular Mass by Freezing Point Depression
Experiment 5: Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas
Experiment 6: Standardization of a Solution UsingaPrimary Standard
Experiment 7: Determination of Concentration by Acid-Base Titration
Experiment 8: Determination of Concentration byOxidation-Reduction Titration
Experiment 9: Determination of Mass and Mole Relationship in a Chemical Reaction
Experiment 19: Preparation and Properties ofBuffer Solutions
Experiment 12: Determination of the Rate ofaReaction and Its Order
Experiment 14: Separation and Qualitative Analysis of Cations and Anions
Experiment 15: Synthesis of a Coordination Compound and Its Chemical Analysis
Experiment 17: Colorimetric or Spectrophotometric Analysis
Experiment 16: Analytical Gravimetric Determination
Experiment 18: Separation by Chromatography
Experiment 20: Determination of Electrochemical Series
Experiment 21: Measurements Using Electrochemical Cells and Electroplating
Experiment 22: Synthesis, Purification, andAnalysis of an Organic Compound
Practice Exam 1
Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions
Section II: Free-Response Questions*
Answer Key for Practice Exam 1
Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam 1
Practice Exam 2
Answer Key for Practice Exam 2
Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam 2
Appendix
Mathematical Operations
Logs and Antilogs
Scientific Notation
Precision
Rounding Off Numbers
Mathematics Self-Test
Answers to Mathematics Self-Test
P. 1
CliffsAP Chemistry

CliffsAP Chemistry

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2,782|Likes:
Published by Wiley
Your complete guide to a higher score on the AP Chemistry exam.Why CliffsAP Guides? Go with the name you know and trust.Get the information you need--fast!Written by test-prep specialistsContents include:  Introduction, overview of the test and how it is scored, proven strategies for each type of question.Review of topics tested, atom, periodic table, bonding, geometry-hybridization, stoichiometry, gases, liquids and solids, thermodynamics, solutions, equilibrium, acids and bases, kinetics, redox, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, and writing reactions.The Labs feature 20 multiple-choice questions, multiple free-response questions on each topic, with answers on each topic, with answers and and explanations, scoring rubrics, and 2 full-length practice examsStructured like the actual examComplete with answers and explanationsAP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
Your complete guide to a higher score on the AP Chemistry exam.Why CliffsAP Guides? Go with the name you know and trust.Get the information you need--fast!Written by test-prep specialistsContents include:  Introduction, overview of the test and how it is scored, proven strategies for each type of question.Review of topics tested, atom, periodic table, bonding, geometry-hybridization, stoichiometry, gases, liquids and solids, thermodynamics, solutions, equilibrium, acids and bases, kinetics, redox, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, and writing reactions.The Labs feature 20 multiple-choice questions, multiple free-response questions on each topic, with answers on each topic, with answers and and explanations, scoring rubrics, and 2 full-length practice examsStructured like the actual examComplete with answers and explanationsAP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

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Published by: Wiley on Feb 05, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9780544178977
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