Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Gruzinski Serge - Nathan Wachtel Cultural Interbreedings Constituting the Majority as a Minority Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol.39, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), Pp.231-250

Gruzinski Serge - Nathan Wachtel Cultural Interbreedings Constituting the Majority as a Minority Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol.39, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), Pp.231-250

Ratings: (0)|Views: 52|Likes:
Published by balibar

More info:

Published by: balibar on Feb 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/12/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Cultural Interbreedings: Constituting the Majority as a MinorityAuthor(s): Serge Gruzinski and Nathan WachtelSource:
Comparative Studies in Society and History,
Vol. 39, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), pp. 231-250Published by: Cambridge University PressStable URL:
Accessed: 09/12/2009 13:22
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=cup.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
Cambridge University Press
is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to
Comparative Studies in Society and History.
http://www.jstor.org
 
CulturalInterbreedings:ConstitutingtheMajorityas aMinority
SERGEGRUZINSKIE.H.E.S.S.NATHANWACHTELCollegede FrancoFrom the time of theSpanishinvasion,inthe Andeanworld asinMexico,amere handfulofconquistadorescame toimposetheir dominationupontheindigentmasses. Onecannot,therefore,begin by speakingof minoritiesnorofthemarginalizationofAmerindianpopulations,even whenthese decreasedramatically ollowingthedemographiccatastropheof thesixteenthcentury,forinspiteof thistheyremainsignificantlymorenumerous han theSpanish.Yet it is true that theterm Indianappears,rom itsoriginseven,as aderogato-ryterm(seethe flood ofcontemporaryiteratureonsavages,idolaters,and soforth)and that itisinfactappliedeven now incountries such asPeru andBolivia,where theautochthonous ubstratum urvives inmanyregions,to thepopulationseastintegratedntonationalife,whomightbeconsidered,nthissense,as"marginal."What, then,has takenplaceduringthese last five centu-ries?
THEINDIANS OF MEXICO ORTHE CONSTITUTIONASAMINORITYOF AMAJORITYPOPULATION
At themoment of theirconquest,the Indians ofMexicoCityformedanagglomerationof200,000to300,000inhabitants.Againstseveralthousandconquistadors,hese Indiansconstituted ademographicmajoritythroughoutthe sixteenthcentury.Eventhoughepidemics greatlyreduced theirnumber,theywere still themostimportantthnicgroupof thatcityat thebeginningofthe seventeenthcentury.Ourinquiryconcerns themeansbywhich thismajoritywasprogressivelytransformedntoaminoritybytheplayof constraintsmanatingromcolonialdomination.Toputit anotherway,we askinwhatmanner,nwhatstages,andinwhatrhythmsdidOccidentalizationnits mostdiverseforms-thegaze,discourse, law,faith,work-model andphagocytizethepopulationswhichitencounteredbydeterminingheirstatus,theirmarginsofexpression,and theirmodes ofexistence.
0010-4175/97/2220-4344$7.50+.10?1997SocietyforComparativeStudyofSocietyandHistory
231
 
232SERGE GRUZINSKIANDNATHAN WACHTELMINORS,NEOPHYTESAND EXEMPTS
InthedaysaftertheSpanish conquest,avarietyof institutionalandjuridicalmeasuresassigneda minorstatusto members ofthe Indianpopulation.TheIndianswere,intheeyesof theChurch,apopulationofneophyteswhoneededspecialattentionand aseparatestatus. Thisiswhythetribunalof theInquisitiondid notholdany jurisdictionwhere the Indianswereconcerned.The formula ofellos son como ninos which the ecclesiastical chroniclersemployedreveals the stateofmind of themonks whofeltthat the Indianswereplacedundertheirtutelageandthattheywere to showthemonks thefilial obediencethatchildrenowe totheirparents.At thispoint,the Indianswerenotyetaminority,properly speaking-unlessaspiritualone-butagrouptreatedn aspecialmannerbecausetheybenefited fromapaternalisticbenevolence and becausetheywereregardedasneedingprotectionasmuchfrom the abusesof theSpanish'asfrom themselves(forexample,areturn oidolatry).
THEPRINCIPLEOF THE TWO REPUBLICS
TospeakofIndians orratherofnaturales,asdo all of theSpanish,revertstodelimitinganirremediablydistinctgroupfromthatformedbythe invaders.Toprovideitwith aninstitutionalreality,therepublicadeIndios,and ajudiciaryorganism,heJuzgadodeIndios,leadstodifferentiatingtjuridicallyfromtherest of thepopulation.Theeffectofthiswastosetapartthe van-quishedsocieties withoutnecessarilyrespectingthepre-Hispanicdifferencesbywhichtheindigenousworld was distributedamonga multitudeof eth-nicities andstates withdistinctlanguagesandorigins.TheSpanishdomina-tiondesignatedandcharacterizedanOthernessby assigningobjectivecon-tours to it.Thisseparation,emporalandspiritualnprinciple,endedtowardsaphysi-calseparation.Themonksevenenvisagedtotally isolatingtheIndians fromtheEuropeans,earingthebadhabits andperniciousexampleof the latter.Byenclosingthe Indianpopulationwithin their networkof churchesand monas-teries,thereligiousorders stroveto make materiala lineofdemarcationbetweenconquerorsandconquered.By insistingthatblacks,half-castes andthose of mixed blood shouldbe chased outofindigenouscommunities,themonkshopedto renderairtighthe frontierwhich,it must berecalled,guaran-teed theirhold over thenatives.Inthecase of MexicoCity,the distinction betweentherepublicoftheIndiansand therepublicof theSpanishestablishedaphysicalandspatialseparationbetween thegroups.Theconquerorssettledinthecenterof
I
"Defenderestasovejasdelos lobos"in the"Cartaolectiva delosfranciscanosde Mexico alemperador"17-XI-1532)publishedFrayToribiode Benavente('Motolinia'),MemorialesMexi-co:UNAM,1971).

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->