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Electrical Installation Guide

Electrical Installation Guide

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Published by: jackcorpuz20006216 on Feb 06, 2010
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Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2008
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Chapter AGeneral rules o electricalinstallation design
Rules and statutory regulations
2.1 Denition o voltage ranges A42.2 Regulations A52.3 Standards A52.4 Quality and saety o an electrical installation A62.5 Initial testing o an installation A62.6 Periodic check-testing o an installation A72.7 Conormity (with standards and specications) o equipmentused in the installation A72.8 Environment A8
Installed power loads - Characteristics A0
3.1 Induction motors A103.2 Resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen) A12
Power loading o an installation A5
4.1 Installed power (kW) A154.2 Installed apparent power (kVA) A154.3 Estimation o actual maximum kVA demand A164.4 Example o application o actors ku and ks A174.5 Diversity actor A184.6 Choice o transormer rating A194.7 Choice o power-supply sources A20
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2008
A - General rules o electrical installation design
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For the best results in electrical installation design it is recommended to read all thechapters o this guide in the order in which they are presented.
Listing o power demands
The study o a proposed electrical installation requires an adequate understanding oall governing rules and regulations.The total power demand can be calculated rom the data relative to the location andpower o each load, together with the knowledge o the operating modes (steadystate demand, starting conditions, non simultaneous operation, etc.)From these data, the power required rom the supply source and (where appropriate)the number o sources necessary or an adequate supply to the installation arereadily obtained.Local inormation regarding tari structures is also required to allow the best choiceo connection arrangement to the power-supply network, e.g. at medium voltage orlow voltage level.
Service connection
This connection can be made at:
Medium Voltage levelA consumer-type substation will then have to be studied, built and equipped. Thissubstation may be an outdoor or indoor installation conorming to relevant standardsand regulations (the low-voltage section may be studied separately i necessary).Metering at medium-voltage or low-voltage is possible in this case.
Low Voltage levelThe installation will be connected to the local power network and will (necessarily) bemetered according to LV taris.
Electrical Distribution architecture
The whole installation distribution network is studied as a complete system.A selection guide is proposed or determination o the most suitable architecture.MV/LV main distribution and LV power distribution levels are covered.Neutral earthing arrangements are chosen according to local regulations, constraintsrelated to the power-supply, and to the type o loads.The distribution equipment (panelboards, switchgears, circuit connections, ...) aredetermined rom building plans and rom the location and grouping o loads.The type o premises and allocation can infuence their immunity to externaldisturbances.
Protection against electric shocks
The earthing system (TT, IT or TN) having been previously determined, then theappropriate protective devices must be implemented in order to achieve protectionagainst hazards o direct or indirect contact.
Circuits and switchgear
Each circuit is then studied in detail. From the rated currents o the loads, the levelo short-circuit current, and the type o protective device, the cross-sectional areao circuit conductors can be determined, taking into account the nature o thecableways and their infuence on the current rating o conductors.Beore adopting the conductor size indicated above, the ollowing requirements mustbe satised:
The voltage drop complies with the relevant standard
Motor starting is satisactory
Protection against electric shock is assuredThe short-circuit current
sc is then determined, and the thermal and electrodynamicwithstand capability o the circuit is checked.These calculations may indicate that it is necessary to use a conductor size largerthan the size originally chosen.The perormance required by the switchgear will determine its type andcharacteristics.
The use of cascading techniques and the discriminative
operation o uses andtripping o circuit breakers are examined.
 Methodology
A - General rules o electrical installation design B – Connection to the MV utility distribution network C - Connection to the LV utility distribution network D - MV & LV architecture selection guide F - Protection against electric shocks G - Sizing and protection o conductors H - LV switchgear: unctions & selection E - LV Distribution 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2008
A - General rules o electrical installation design
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
Protection against overvoltages
Direct or indirect lightning strokes can damage electrical equipment at a distanceo several kilometers. Operating voltage surges, transient and industrial requencyover-voltage can also produce the same consequences.The eects are examinedand solutions are proposed.
Energy efciency in electrial distribution
Implementation o measuring devices with an adequate communication systemwithin the electrical installation can produce high benets or the user or owner:reduced power consumption, reduced cost o energy, better use o electricalequipment.
Reactive energy
The power actor correction within electrical installations is carried out locally,globally or as a combination o both methods.
Harmonics in the network aect the quality o energy and are at the origin o manydisturbances as overloads, vibrations, ageing o equipment, trouble o sensitiveequipment, o local area networks, telephone networks. This chapter deals with theorigins and the eects o harmonics and explain how to measure them and presentthe solutions.
Particular supply sources and loads
Particular items or equipment are studied:
Specic sources such as alternators or inverters
Specic loads with special characteristics, such as
induction motors, lightingcircuits or LV/LV transformers
Specic systems, such as direct-current networks
Generic applications
Certain premises and locations are subject to particularly strict regulations: the mostcommon example being residential dwellings.
EMC Guidelines
Some basic rules must be ollowed in order to ensure Electromagnetic Compatibility.Non observance o these rules may have serious consequences in the operation othe electrical installation: disturbance o communication systems, nuisance trippingo protection devices, and even destruction o sensitive devices.
Ecodial sotware
Ecodial sotware
provides a complete design package or LV installations, inaccordance with IEC standards and recommendations.The ollowing eatures are included:
Construction o one-line diagrams
Calculation o short-circuit currents
Calculation o voltage drops
Optimization o cable sizes
Required ratings o switchgear and usegear
Discrimination o protective devices
Recommendations or cascading schemes
Verication o the protection o people
Comprehensive print-out o the oregoing calculated design data
J – Protection against voltage surges in LV L - Power actor correction and harmonic fltering N - Characteristics o particular sources and loads P - Residential and other special locations M - Harmonic management 
(1) Ecodial is a Merlin Gerin product and is available in Frenchand English versions.
 Methodology
K – Energy efciency in electrical distribution Q - EMC guideline 

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