INTRODUCTION TO PUMPS
Pump is a mechanical device generally used for raising liquids from lower level to a higher level.Pump is also used to add energy to the fluid to move it from one point to another. This is achieved by creating a low pressure at the inlet and the high pressureat the outlet of the pump. Due to the low inlet pressure the liquid rises from where it isavailable and the high outlet pressure forces it up where it is to be stored or supplied.However, work has to be done by prime mover to enable it to impart mechanical energy tothe liquid which ultimately converts into pressure energy.Pump is also used to increase the flow rate of the liquid.
Classification of Pumps
.Considering the basic principle of operation, pumps are divided intotwo main groups; Roto dynamics pumps (Centrifugal pumps) and Positive displacement pumps. A complete classification of pumps has been shown in the pump types organogram
Centrifugal Pumps (Roto Dynamic Pumps)
Centrifugal pumps are the machines which employ centrifugal force to lift theliquid from lower level to a higher level by developing pressure. A simplest type of pumpcomprises of an impeller fitted on to a shaft rotating in a volute casing.Liquids led into the center of the impeller( known as eye of the impeller) is picked up by the vanes of impeller and accelerated to a high velocity by the rotation of the impeller anddischarge by centrifugal force into the casing and then out the discharge pipe. When liquid isforced away from the center, a vacuum is created and more liquid flows in. Continuouslifting of the liquid thus takes place from sump to the pump. While passing through theimpeller the liquid receives energy from the vanes and gains in pressure energy and Kineticenergy. Since large amount of K.E. is not desirable at the impeller outlet, arrangement ismade in design to convert K.E. to Pressure energy before the liquid enters the discharge pipe.