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Elements of Quantum Txt

Elements of Quantum Txt

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Published by: RaihankaHoneyBoo on Feb 07, 2010
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03/07/2011

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C
OORDINATE
S
YSTEMS
 
Spherical
( )
, ,
θ φ 
 
sin cossin sincos
 x  y  z
θ φ θ φ θ 
===
 
M
ATH
S
TUFF
 
3 2 10sphere sphere 00
44 !3
n n
V r A r r e dr n
π π 
+
= = =
∫ 
 Trig Functions
( )( )
( ) ( )( ) ( )
2 2
sin2 2sin cossin sin cos cos sincos cos cos sin sinsin 1 cos2 /2 cos 1 cos2 /2cos 90 sin sin 90 cos
 x y x y x y x y x y x y x x x x
α α α θ θ θ θ 
== ±±=±= = +± = ± =
 Complex Numbers
( )
( ) ( )
2* * 2 2 2
cos sintan Re cos ; Im sin2 2
 phase where
ii i i ii i
 z x iy re r i z x iy z zz x y  y xe e e ee e
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ 
θ θ θ θ θ θ 
= + = = += = = + ==+ = = = =
 
BB,
 
PE,
 
R
UTH
.,
 
B
OHR
,
 
CS,
 
X-R
AYS
,
 
U
NC
.
 
P
R
.
Ideal Gas Law
( )
3 2222
42 22 8 33 2
 / 
exp, ,
m
m mvn v dv N v dvkT kkT kv v v km m
π π 
== = =
 Black Body RadiationEmittance W or Intensity I:
 / 
 M P A
λ 
=
, where P = power, A = Area at thermalequilibrium:
abs emi
 E
=
 
408 2 4
5.67 10 [ / ] / 1
, because
 BB BB BB BB
P M d M W m  I M a M a
λ λ 
λ σ σ 
= = == ×= = =
∫ 
 
3max
2.90 10 [ ]
T const m
λ 
= = × °
 Jean’s #: # of allowed standing waves,
n
λ 
 
mod4
8
wave e
n E
λ λ 
π λ 
Ψ = =Ψ
= energy density of EM field [ J/m3] Where
 E 
is average energyEnergy for each level:
n
 E nh
ν 
=
 Diff in E level (Energy quanta):
 E h
ν 
=
 
( )( )( )( )( )
42532
84 4 4 exp / 112exp / 12exp / 1
c c c h M T n hc khchc kh M c h k
λ λ λ ν 
π ν λ λ π λ λ π ν ν 
= Ψ = = ⋅ ⋅= =
Planck’s derivation:
n
 E nh
ν 
=
 
1 11 1
1
 /  /  / 
ii
 N  E kT i i ii i N h kT  E kT ii i
 E n E Neh E en Ne
ν 
ν 
= == =
= = =
 Photoelectric Effectwork function=binding energy=E to release
e
 
minmax
oth
ch
ν ν λ 
= = =
, when stopping
V
=0
max
 / /
,
s o
T V e h s P E E h hc
γ 
ν γ ν λ 
= = = = =
 Rutherford Scattering
2
1 24
o
 zeP Rv
πε 
=
P PP M v
α α α 
θ 
=
 
dN
= # part. that intersect(are detected)
( )
24
csc16 2
 B
dN Dn dx  N 
θ θ 
=
,
N
B
=Intensity(#part./s)
2
14
beam atomic #target atomic #
o
o
 z zZe D Z 
α 
πε 
=
 
3
[/ ]
a
 N n m A
 ρ 
=
,A = atomic mass, [kg/mol]
[ ]
( )( )
det2 2
sin
dARd R  R R
θ θ φ 
= =
 Energy of radiating wavelength
4
1.24 10 [ ]
o
eVA, ,
 E c E q
ν λ λ 
× = = =
 Bohr Model
mvr n
=
 
2 220 00222 221 22 2 20 1 222 22 20
4, 0.0529,4 213.64 2
nm eV
enoneo
n a mnr a z e z E m m z e E zn n m m m Z e E n
πε µ µ µ µ µ πε µ πε 
= = == = =+= − =
 transition from n
k:
202 2
1 1
h E z k n
ν 
= =
 X-ray productionBraking radiation results from deceleration of chargedpart.
minmaxmin
'' 0,
,at
e eee e
hc hc E h T T T eV hcT h
γ 
λ ν ν λ 
= = = = = = =
 X-rays from ionization:
( )
202
n efn
 E  E zn
=
 Compton Scattering
: cos cos , :0 sin sin' '
h h h x mv y mv
α β α β λ λ λ 
= + =
If e:
' (1 cos )
o
hm c
λ λ λ α 
= =
,
 Lorentz o
m m
γ 
=
 If scattered part atom:
(1 cos )
ec
m M 
λ λ α 
=
 
0.00243
ce
hnmm c
λ 
= =
 Franck-Hertz Experiment
( )
 where , fixed
 fin iniinit GA
T T T E
= > ∆
 DiffractionTwo slit:
max min
1sin sin2
,
a n n
λ θ λ θ 
= = +
 One slit:
min
sin
a
θ λ 
 Bragg ScatteringCondition:
2 sin
d n
θ λ 
=
,d = spacing betweenatoms, n = integer multipleMatter Waves
2 sin
-
ediffraction max at
h hmv p
λ λ θ 
= = =
 Uncertainty Principle
, ,2 2
,
 x p E t t x
ω 
 
W
AVE
P
ACKETS
 
2
2
,
group particlek
k d pv vm dk m
ω ω 
=
= = = =
 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
,0
,given, otherwisechange of vars
i kx i x ikx
 A k  A  x A k e dk k  x A k e e d
κ ω κ κ κ ω κ 
κ κ κ 
+
+=Ψ = = Ψ =
∫ ∫ 
 
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
()
22222
2exp / exp2exp /2
Gaussian amplitude dist. where and:
ikx
 A k  x A k e dk x
σ κ κ κ σ π κ κ 
−∞
== =Ψ = =
∫ 
 
S
CHRÖDINGER
E
QUATIONS
 
( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 22 222 222 2222*
2, , ,221 ,
, ,time ind. S.E.:probability: , normalize:
opop
 pV E p E im x  x t V x t i x m x  x V x E xm x x t dx
ψ ψ ψ 
−∞
+ = Ψ + Ψ = Ψ+ =Ψ = Ψ Ψ = Ψ
∫ 
 Particle in a box
 /2
at
V x a
= = ±
 
( ) ( )
2 22
2
inside:
 x V xm x
ψ ψ 
+
( )( ) ( )( )
222 2
20cos sincos 0 sin2 20: cos 020: sin 02 / 2
set:BC's:odd with cos, even with sinnormalize to find that
 E xmE k x k x x x A kx B kxka ka A Bka B Aka A Bk n a n A B a
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ π 
== + == += == = == = == = =
 General solution
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2222 221 222221 2222
:222,0 cos sin,0
considerinside: setoutside:set boundaries equal
k x
V V  x V x x E xm xm x E V x x xm x x E V x k E V x x k x x A kx B kx x x x x x k x x e x
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ 
+ == > = + = = +>= =
 Potential Well
0
/2
at
V V x a
= >
 
( )
22
2 21 2 02 2111/202112 2 212 2
2 2cossin1tan2tan2 2 2
inside: , outside,continuity at boundaries observe:
k xinside outsidek x
m mk E k V  A k xCe B k xDeV d adx k ma E ma
ψ ψ ψ ψ π π 
= = = == == =
01
2
V  E  E
π 
=
 Harmonic Oscillator with
( )
2
2
V x x
=
 
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
222 22222 2022 2max22 2 222 202
222,2exp /2 exp /2 exp /21 exp /2 1
arrange S.E.:set:satisfies if
d mk  xdx d mk E m xdx mk mk  xd mk d
ψ ψ ψ ψ ξ λ ω ψ ξ λ ψ ξ λ ξ ψ ψ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ψ ξ ξ λ λ ξ 
= = = == − ⇒ = == − = = − − = =
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
0 00 01/820 02 220
2 2, exp /2 exp exp /212 12
eigenfunction gives normalized stationary-state wave fnc.other solutions have:can find that so
n n
 E mk  x t mkx iE  H n E n
ω ω λ π ψ ξ ξ ξ λ ω 
= =Ψ = = = + = +
Expectation Values
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
** 2 * 22* 2 * 22* *2 22 22 2
, , ,, , , ,, , , ,, , , ,
,,,,
 A A x P x t dx x t A x x t dx x x t x x t dx x x t x x t dx p x t x t dx p x t x t dxi x xV x t V x x t dx E x t i x t dx x x x p p p
= = Ψ Ψ= Ψ Ψ = Ψ Ψ= Ψ Ψ = Ψ Ψ= Ψ Ψ = Ψ Ψ= − = −
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ 
for particle in a box with: 
( )
2 21 1 12
2cos exp2
 x i x Et a a ma
π π ψ 
= =
 
( )( )
 /22 /23 /22 20
2cos / 0 22 cos
aa
 x x x a dx y x aaa y y dya
π 
π π π 
= = ==
∫ ∫ 
let
( )( )( )
[ ]
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
 /22 3 230222
 
2 /2 /22 2 2* *12 2
cos 24 1sin 26 4 8 46122cos sin 02
aa
 y ya y y ya x x x p dxa a i a a p x x dx x mE x dxdx a
π 
π π π π π π π ψ ψ ψ ψ 
= + += = ⎛ ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ = =⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ = = =
∫ ∫ 
int. of odd fnc
 Radiative transitions
( )( ) ( )
2'*' '2' ' '
,, 0
consider elec. dipoleem rad:dipole transition amplitude:intensity calculate if , no dipole rad.emitted
elecn nnn n nnn nn nn
P e x e x x t dx E  x x x dx
ω  χ ψ ψ  χ χ χ 
−∞−∞
= Ψ===
∫ ∫ 
Harmonic oscillator em radiation
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
( )
2 2 22' '1 12' ' 1 1
1exp /22exp12212 exp2
n
, , ,from Herm. polynom. recurs. rel.:
n nnn n nn n nnn n n n
mk  E E n H x H H  H H n H H nH
ω ω ψ ξ ξ ξ  χ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ  χ ξ ξ ξ 
−∞+ + −∞
= = + = == = += +
∫ ∫ 
Potential step
( ) ( )
0
0 0 0
,
V x V x
< = =
 
( )
2
2 2212 2221 1 12202 22 22 21 221 11
2020 cos sin20 0, 0: :0: cos sin
at ,atmake continuous at,
k x
mE  x E m xk A k x B k x xm V  x k k Ce x xdx A C Bk k dx x C k x
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ 
< = =+ = = +> = = === = −< =
2
0:
 
k x
 x x Ce
ψ 
> =
Potential barrier 
( )
0
0,
in
V V a
=
 
( )( )( )
1 12 21 1
12
,0 :0, :ˆˆ ˆ, : 0
as defined above for region before and after barrierfor barrier region (also as above)set for no reflection fromcontinuity o
ik x ik xk x k xik x ik x
 Ae Bea Ce Dea Ae Be B
ψ ψ ψ 
= += += + =
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 12 2 1
1 22 12 22 22 22 1 2 12 21 2 1 2
, 0,0: ::ˆ: :ˆ:1 11 sinh sinhˆ ˆ4 4
f at,
k a k a ik ak a k a ik a
 x adx x A B C Dik A B k C Ddx x a Ce De Aek Ce De ik Aedxk k k  A Bk a k ak k k  A A
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ 
== + = +== + === + + = +
Prob. Current density and T and R coefficients
( )( )( )
**2 21 1212 22 2
,20: ,ˆ0: ,ˆ ˆˆ
, for above this results in: 
inc refltransrefltransinc inc
d  j x t im dx dxk  x j x t A B j jm m x j x t A jm j j A B B AT R j A j A A A
ψ ψ ψ ψ 
= < = = +> = == = = = =
2 Particles in 1D
1 2 1 21 2 1 2 2 11 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
( , ) ( ) ( )1( , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )21( , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( , )2
S A
 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ 
Ψ == += =
 2 identical particles:sym.asym.
2 disting. part. in a box
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 2 21 21 2 1 221 21 2 1 211 121 2 112 21
( , ) ( ) ( )22 2 2:// cos cos cos sin1 2 2cos sin cos2
n n n n n nS S
n n x x x x a m m x x x xega a a a a a x x xa a a a
π π π π π π π π 
Ψ = Ψ Ψ = +⎛ ⎞Ψ = Ψ =⎜ ⎟⎝ ⎠⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞Ψ = Ψ = +⎝ 
 
221 12
cos
 A A
 xa
π 
 ⎠ ⎝ −Ψ = Ψ
 similarly:
1 particle in 3D box
1 2 31 2 3
2 2 22 2 22 2 2222222 22 231 22 2 21
( , , ) ( )2( , , ) ( , , )22sin sin2 2cos cos
n n nn n n
 x y zV x y z i V V m dt  x y z E x y zmnn n E m a b cn xa a b
π π 
+ + = − ∇ Ψ + Ψ = Ψ − ∇ Ψ = Ψ= + +Ψ =
if time ind.
32
sin2cos
n xn xb c c
π π 
 
θ 
 
φ 
( )
,,
p
θ φ 

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