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Number System operation& code Digital System

Number System operation& code Digital System

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Bangkok University
Number System, Operation and Code
ThidaratTawsookThidarat.t@bu.ac.th
 an g o U ni  v e si   t   y
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ContentContent
Decimal Number
Binary, Hexadecimal, Octal Number
Binary Addition
Binary Subtraction
Code
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The position of each digitin aweighted number systemis assigned aweight based on the baseor radix of thesystem. The radix of decimal numbers is ten, becauseonly ten symbols (0 through 9) are used to represent anynumber.
SummarySummarySummary
The column weights of decimal numbers arepowers of ten that increase from right to left beginningwith 10
0
=1:
Decimal Numbers
…10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
.For fractional decimal numbers, the columnweights are negative powers of ten that decrease from leftto right:10
2
10
1
10
0
.10
-1
10
-2
10
-3
10
-4
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SummarySummarySummary
Decimal Numbers
Express the number 480.52 as the sum of values of eachdigit.
(9
x
10
3
) + (2
x
10
2
) + (4
x
10
1
) + (0
x
10
0
)or9 x 1,000 + 2 x 100 + 4 x10 + 0 x 1Decimal numbers can be expressed as the sum of theproducts of each digit times the column value for thatdigit. Thus, the number 9240 can be expressed as
480.52 =(4
x
10
2
) + (8
x
10
1
) + (0
x
10
0
) + (5
x
10
-1
) +(2
x
10
-2
)
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SummarySummarySummary
Binary Numbers
For digital systems, the binary number system is used.Binary has a radix of two and uses the digits 0 and 1 torepresent quantities.The column weights of binary numbers arepowers of two that increase from right to left beginningwith 2
0
=1:…2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
.For fractional binary numbers, the columnweights are negative powers of two that decrease fromleft to right:2
2
2
1
2
0
.2
-1
2
-2
2
-3
2
-4
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SummarySummarySummary
Binary Numbers
A binary counting sequence fornumbers from zero to fifteen is shown.
0 0 0 0 01 0 0 0 12 0 0 1 03 0 0 1 14 0 1 0 05 0 1 0 16 0 1 1 07 0 1 1 18 1 0 0 09 1 0 0 110 1 0 1 011 1 0 1 112 1 1 0 013 1 1 0 114 1 1 1 015 1 1 1 1
DecimalNumberBinaryNumber
Notice the pattern of zeros and onesin each column.
Counter Decoder1 0 1 0 1 0 1 00 10 1 1 0 0 1 1 00 00 0 0 1 1 1 1 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 1
Digital counters frequently have thissame pattern of digits:
 
2
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SummarySummarySummary
Binary Conversions
The decimal equivalent of a binary number can bedetermined by adding the column values of all of the bitsthat are 1 and discarding all of the bits that are 0.Convert the binary number 100101.01 todecimal.Start by writing the column weights; then addthe weights that correspond to each 1 in thenumber.
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
. 2
-1
2
-2
32 16 8 4 2 1 . ½¼1 0 0 1 0 1. 0 132 +4 +1 =37¼32 +4 +1 +0.25 =37.25
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SummarySummarySummary
Binary Conversions
Convert the binary number 10010.1011 todecimal.Start by writing the column weights; then addthe weights that correspond to each 1 in thenumber.
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
. 2
-1
2
-2
2
-3
2
-4
16 8 4 2 1 . 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.06251 0 0 1 0 . 1 0 1 116 +2 +0.5 +0.125 +0.0625 =18.6875
 an g o U ni  v e si   t   y
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SummarySummarySummary
Binary Conversions
You can convert a decimal whole number to binary byreversing the procedure. Write the decimal weight of each column and place 1’s in the columns that sum to thedecimal number.Convert the decimal number 49 to binary.The column weights double in each position tothe right. Write down column weights until thelast number is larger than the one you want toconvert.
2
6
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
.64 32 16 8 4 2 1.0 1 1 0 0 0 1.
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SummarySummarySummary
You can convert adecimal fraction to binarybyrepeatedly multiplying the fractional results of successivemultiplications by 2. The carries form the binarynumber.Convert the decimal fraction 0.1875 to binary byrepeatedly multiplying the fractional results by 2.0.1875
x
2 =0.375carry =0 0.3750
x
2 =0.750carry =0 0.7500
x
2 =1.500carry =1 0.5000
x
2 =1.000carry =1 Answer =.0011
(for five significant digits)
MSB
Binary Conversions
Stop
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100110
SummarySummarySummary
You canconvert decimal to any other baseby repeatedlydividing by the base. For binary, repeatedly divide by 2:Convert the decimal number 49 to binary byrepeatedly dividing by 2.You can do this by “reverse division”and theanswer will read from left to right. Putquotients to the left and remainders on top.49 2
Decimalnumberbase
24
remainderQuotient
126310
Continue until thelast quotient is 0
Answer:
Binary Conversions
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Checkup1
Convert the following decimal numbers to binary
19
45
5.3125See Solution in Page 53-54
Convert the following binary to decimal number
1101101
0.1011See Solution in Page 50-51
110.11
 
3
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SummarySummarySummary
Hexadecimal Numbers
Hexadecimal uses sixteen charactersto represent numbers: the numbers 0through 9 and the alphabeticcharacters A through F.
01234567891011121314150123456789ABCDEF0000000100100011010001010110011110001001101010111100110111101111
DecimalHexadecimalBinary
Large binary number caneasily be converted to hexadecimalbygrouping bits 4at a time andwriting the equivalent hexadecimalcharacter.
Express 1001 0110 0000 1110
2
inhexadecimal:Group the binary number by 4-bits starting from the right. Thus,960E
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SummarySummarySummary
Hexadecimal Numbers
Hexadecimal is a weighted numbersystem. The column weights arepowers of 16, which increase fromright to left.
.
1 A 2 F
16
6703
10
Column weights
16
3
16
2
16
1
16
0
4096 256 16 1
.
{
Express 1A2F
16
in decimal.
Start by writing the column weights:4096 256 16 1
1(4096) + 10(256) +2(16) +15(1) =
01234567891011121314150123456789ABCDEF0000000100100011010001010110011110001001101010111100110111101111
DecimalHexadecimalBinary
 
 an g o U ni  v e si   t   y
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Checkup2
Convert the following decimal numbers to hexadecimal number
650
10
See Solution in Page 76
2606.1015625
10
See Solution in Page
 ๖
Convert the following hexadecimal numbers to decimal number
E5
16
See Solution in Page 75
D3C.2F
16
See Solution in Page
Convert the following hexadecinalnumbers to binary number
10A4
16
CF8E
16
See Solution in Page 74
A69.238
16
See Solution in Page
๑๓
Convert the following binary numbers to octal number
100101
2
1100101001010111
2
See Solution in Page 74
11111100001101.100011
2
See Solution in Page
๑๓
 an g o U ni  v e si   t   y
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SummarySummarySummary
Octal Numbers
Octal uses eight characters thenumbers 0 through 7 to representnumbers. There is no 8 or 9character in octal.
01234567891011121314150123456710111213141516170000000100100011010001010110011110001001101010111100110111101111
DecimalOctalBinary
Binary number can easily beconverted to octal bygrouping bits 3at a time and writing the equivalentoctal character for each group.
Express 1 001 011 000 001 110
2
inoctal:Group the binary number by 3-bitsstarting from the right. Thus,113016
8
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SummarySummarySummary
Octal Numbers
Octal is also a weighted numbersystem. The column weights arepowers of 8, which increase fromright to left.
.
3 7 0 2
8
1986
10
Column weights
8
3
8
2
8
1
8
0
512 64 8 1
.
{
Express 3702
8
in decimal.
Start by writing the column weights:512 64 8 1
3(512) + 7(64) +0(8) +2(1) =
01234567891011121314150123456710111213141516170000000100100011010001010110011110001001101010111100110111101111
DecimalOctalBinary
 an g o U ni  v e si   t   y
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Checkup3
Convert the following decimal numbers to octal number
359See Solution in Page 80
415.65625See Solution in Page
Convert the following octal numbers to decimal number
2374See Solution in Page 80
15.21
Convert the following octal numbers to binary number
25
7526See Solution in Page 81
524.61See Solution in Page
๑๑
Convert the following binary numbers to octal number
100101
101111001See Solution in Page 82
11101001000.01011See Solution in Page
๑๑

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