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Data Ware House

Data Ware House

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Published by riyazalishaik

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Published by: riyazalishaik on Feb 07, 2010
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1Data Warehousing Concepts
This chapter provides an overview of the Oracle data warehousing implementation. Itincludes:
Data Warehouse Architectures Note that this book is meant as a supplement to standard texts about data warehousing.This book focuses on Oracle-specific material and does not reproduce in detail materialof a general nature. Two standard texts are:
The Data Warehouse Toolkit 
by Ralph Kimball (John Wiley and Sons, 1996)
 Building the Data Warehouse
by William Inmon (John Wiley and Sons, 1996)
What is a Data Warehouse?
A data warehouse is a relational database that is designed for query and analysis rather than for transaction processing. It usually contains historical data derived fromtransaction data, but it can include data from other sources. It separates analysis workloadfrom transaction workload and enables an organization to consolidate data from severalsources.In addition to a relational database, a data warehouse environment includes an extraction,transportation, transformation, and loading (ETL) solution, an online analytical processing (OLAP) engine, client analysis tools, and other applications that manage the process of gathering data and delivering it to business users.
See Also:
 Chapter 10, "Overview of Extraction, Transformation, and Loading"A common way of introducing data warehousing is to refer to the characteristics of a datawarehouse as set forth by William Inmon:
Subject Oriented
Data warehouses are designed to help you analyze data. For example, to learn more aboutyour company's sales data, you can build a warehouse that concentrates on sales. Usingthis warehouse, you can answer questions like "Who was our best customer for this itemlast year?" This ability to define a data warehouse by subject matter, sales in this case,makes the data warehouse subject oriented.
Integration is closely related to subject orientation. Data warehouses must put data fromdisparate sources into a consistent format. They must resolve such problems as namingconflicts and inconsistencies among units of measure. When they achieve this, they aresaid to be integrated.
 Nonvolatile means that, once entered into the warehouse, data should not change. This islogical because the purpose of a warehouse is to enable you to analyze what has occurred.
Time Variant
In order to discover trends in business, analysts need large amounts of data. This is verymuch in contrast to
 systems, where performancerequirements demand that historical data be moved to an archive. A data warehouse'sfocus on change over time is what is meant by the term time variant.
Contrasting OLTP and Data Warehousing Environments
Figure 1-1illustrates key differences between an OLTP system and a data warehouse.
Figure 1-1 Contrasting OLTP and Data Warehousing Environments
Text description of the illustration dwhsg005.gif One major difference between the types of system is that data warehouses are not usuallyin
, a type of data normalization common in OLTPenvironments.Data warehouses and OLTP systems have very different requirements. Here are someexamples of differences between typical data warehouses and OLTP systems:
WorkloadData warehouses are designed to accommodate
ad hoc
queries. You might notknow the workload of your data warehouse in advance, so a data warehouseshould be optimized to perform well for a wide variety of possible queryoperations.OLTP systems support only predefined operations. Your applications might bespecifically tuned or designed to support only these operations.
Data modificationsA data warehouse is updated on a regular basis by the ETL process (run nightly or weekly) using bulk data modification techniques. The end users of a datawarehouse do not directly update the data warehouse.In OLTP systems, end users routinely issue individual data modificationstatements to the database. The OLTP database is always up to date, and reflectsthe current state of each business transaction.
Schema design3

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