Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
11Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
19417287 Diesel Power Plants

19417287 Diesel Power Plants

Ratings: (0)|Views: 209|Likes:
Published by batchleo

More info:

Published by: batchleo on Feb 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/07/2012

pdf

text

original

 
13
DieselPowerPlants
13·1.Introduction
Dieselplantsaremoreefficientthananyotherheatengineofcomparablesize.Theseplantsarecheapbywayofinitialcost,canbestartedandstoppedquicklyandcanburnawiderangeoffuels.ADieselplantdoesnotrequireanywarmingperiod;itneednotbekeptrunningforalongtimebeforepeakinguploads.Asaresultthereisnostandbylosses.Anotheradvantageofsuchaplantisthatitdoesnotneedlargeamountofwaterforcooling.Adieselplantcanbecommissionedinsuchamuchlittletimecomparedwithahydro,steamornuclearpowerstation.InviewoftheseadvantagesaDieselstationissuitableforlocalitieswherefuelcostsarelow,wherewatersupplyislimited,whereoilischeaperthancoalandwhereloadsareofsuchmagnitudesthattheycanbehandledbyaplantofsmallcapacity.Anothermeansofgeneratingelectricity
(i.e.
hydro,thermal,nuclear)arerivalstoDieselplantsandcanbeattractiveundercertainconditions.Alsoagasturbineplantforcontinuouspowergenerationissuperiortoadieselplantwherefuelisverycheap(asatarefineryorwhereloadfactorsareverypoor).Notwithstandingcompetitionfromitsrivalsadieselplantprovidesthemosteconomicalmeansofgeneratingelectricityonsmanscaleparticularlywherethereisnoconvenientsiteformicro-hydroplants,cheapfuelsarenotavailableandloadfactorsareconsiderablylarge.Theimportantfieldsofapplicationsofdieselenginesareasrailroadlocomotives,shippropulsion,roadbuildingandfarmmachinery,electricgeneratorsforsmallsupplyunitsforpublic,industrialandinstitutionalpurposes
e.g.
cinemahalls,hospitals,municipaltiesetc.Theseareusedinfreighttrucks,andbuses.However,sincedieselenginescanmakeefficientuseoffuelsthatarecheaperthangasoline,theyarebeingutilizedincreasinglyinautomobiles.Dieselelectricpowerplantshavebeenchieflyusedaspeakloadandstandbyunits,forthehydroelectricpowerplants.These
 
554
POWEHPLANTTECHNOLOGY
areusedasemergencystandbyunitswhichnormallyremainidleandarerunonlywherethereisafailureofthecentralstationandwherekeyindustrialprocessescannotbeinterruptedtoavoidfinancialloss.
13·2.DieselEngine:WorkingPrincipleandGeneralDescription
Aninternalcombustionengineinwhichthefuelisignitedbyinjectingitintoairthathasbeenheatedtoahightemperaturebyrapidcompression;hence,dieselenginesarealsocalledcompression-ignitionengines.TheconceptofignitioncompressionwaspatentedbyRudolfDieselin1892,andfirstdemonstratedinanengine,fiveyearslatter.Thecompressionignitionengineisaheatengine
(i.e.
onethatconvertsheatpartiallyintomechanicalwork)operatingonanapproximationtotheidealizedDieselcycleinwhichcombustionofthefuel,thatis,theheatadditionstage,occursatessentiallyconstantpressure.
Dieselcycle.
Arepeatedsuccessionofoperations(orcycle)representingtheidealizedbehaviouroftheworkingfluidinthedieselengineformofheatengine.ThedieselcycleisillustratedanddescribedinFig.(13·2·1.)Followingmaineventsaretakingplaceinacycle.
b
t
p
o
v
Fig.]8·2·1.Di('se]cycle.
d
CD
a
Suctionoperation(oa)
atconstantpressureinwhichairissuckedinsidethecylinderfromatmosphereatnearlyatmosphericpressure.
Adiabaticcompression
oftheworkingfluid
i.e.,
air(gas)along
a
b
;
thetemperatureandpressureareincreased.
 
DIESELPOWERPLANTS
555
Heatadditionalongbeat
const?ntpressure;thegastemperatureandvolumeareincreased.
Adiabaticexpansionalong
c
d,
workisdonebytheexpandinggas,and,thetemperatureandpressuredecrease.
Heatremoval(rejection)
along
d,a
atconstantvolume;thepressureandtemperaturedecrease,andthegasisrestoredtoitsinitialconditionat
a.
Herecycleiscompleted.Inthedescriptioneachstageisassumedtohavebeencompletedbeforethenextstageisinitiated.However,inanactualenginethereisagradualratherthanasharptransitionfromonestagetonext;hencethesharppointsinthefigurewouldactuallyberoundedoff.Inadieselengine(Fig.13·2·2),airisdownintoacylinderwhere
Fuel
I
Bothvalves~
injectorclosed
INTAKESTAGE-1COMPRESSIONSTAGF-2POWERSTAGE-]EXHAUSTSTAGE-4
Fig.
J;1'~'~'
"'ourstJokcdl(;~'-'I'-'''gllle.
itiscompressedadiabaticallybytheinwardmotionofthepistonandtherebyheated(stage1).Justpriortomaximumcompression,fuelisinjectedanditburnsrapidlyintheveryhotcompressedair;heatisthusaddedtotheworkingfluidatessentiallyconstantpressure(stage2).Thehotcombustiongasesexpandadiabaticallyandindoingsopushbackthepistonandmechanicalworkisdonestage3).Atstage4,exhaustvalveopensandoperation4heatrejectionandthenexhausttakesplace.Following
fourstrokes
aretakingplaceinonecycle.1.IntakeorSuction.Thepistonmovingdownward
(i.e.,
outofthecylinder)drawsairintothecylinderbywayoftheopenintakevalve.Theexhaustvalveisclosed(operation
oa).
2.Compression.Theintakevalveisclosedandpistonmovingupward
(i.e.,
intothecylinder)compressestheair.Thepressureisincreasedtoabout35to40atm.(3·5to4MPa),andtheairtemperaturerisesto450to500°C.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->