1.1 Metric spaces

1.2 Completeness and completion

1.3. NORMED VECTOR SPACES AND BANACH SPACES. 17

1.3 Normed vector spaces and Banach spaces

1.4 Compactness

1.5 Total Boundedness

1.6 Separability

1.7 Second Countability

1.8 Conclusion of the proof of Theorem 1.5.1

1.9 Dini’s lemma

1.11. ZORN’S LEMMA AND THE AXIOM OF CHOICE. 23

1.11 Zorn’s lemma and the axiom of choice

1.12 The Baire category theorem

1.13 Tychonoﬀ’s theorem

1.14 Urysohn’s lemma

1.15 The Stone-Weierstrass theorem

1.17 The Hahn-Banach theorem

1.18. THE UNIFORM BOUNDEDNESS PRINCIPLE. 35

1.18 The Uniform Boundedness Principle

2.1 Hilbert space

2.1.1 Scalar products

2.1.2 The Cauchy-Schwartz inequality

2.1.3 The triangle inequality

2.1.4 Hilbert and pre-Hilbert spaces

2.1.5 The Pythagorean theorem

2.1.6 The theorem of Apollonius

2.1.7 The theorem of Jordan and von Neumann

2.1.8 Orthogonal projection

2.1.9 The Riesz representation theorem

2.1.10 What is L2(T)?

2.1.11 Projection onto a direct sum

2.1.12 Projection onto a ﬁnite dimensional subspace

2.1.13 Bessel’s inequality

2.1.14 Parseval’s equation

2.1.15 Orthonormal bases

2.2 Self-adjoint transformations

2.2.1 Non-negative self-adjoint transformations

2.3 Compact self-adjoint transformations

2.4 Fourier’s Fourier series

2.4.1 Proof by integration by parts

2.4.3 G˚arding’s inequality, special case

2.5 The Heisenberg uncertainty principle

2.6 The Sobolev Spaces

2.7 G˚arding’s inequality

2.8 Consequences of G˚arding’s inequality

2.9. EXTENSION OF THE BASIC LEMMAS TO MANIFOLDS. 79

2.9 Extension of the basic lemmas to manifolds

2.10 Example: Hodge theory

2.11 The resolvent

The Fourier Transform

3.1 Conventions, especially about 2π

3.2 Convolution goes to multiplication

3.3 Scaling

3.4 Fourier transform of a Gaussian is a Gaus-

3.5 The multiplication formula

3.6 The inversion formula

3.7 Plancherel’s theorem

3.8 The Poisson summation formula

3.9 The Shannon sampling theorem

3.10. THE HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE. 91

3.10 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

3.11 Tempered distributions

3.11.1 Examples of Fourier transforms of elements of S

Measure theory

4.1 Lebesgue outer measure

4.2 Lebesgue inner measure

4.3 Lebesgue’s deﬁnition of measurability

4.4 Caratheodory’s deﬁnition of measurability

4.5 Countable additivity

4.7.2 Metric outer measures

4.8 Constructing outer measures, Method II

4.8.1 An example

4.9 Hausdorﬀ measure

4.10 Hausdorﬀ dimension

4.11 Push forward

4.12 The Hausdorﬀ dimension of fractals

4.12.1 Similarity dimension

4.12.2 The string model

4.13 The Hausdorﬀ metric and Hutchinson’s the-

4.14 Aﬃne examples

4.14.1 The classical Cantor set

4.14.2 The Sierpinski Gasket

4.14.3 Moran’s theorem

The Lebesgue integral

5.1 Real valued measurable functions

5.2 The integral of a non-negative function

5.3 Fatou’s lemma

5.4 The monotone convergence theorem

5.5 The space L1(X,R)

5.6 The dominated convergence theorem

5.7 Riemann integrability

5.8 The Beppo - Levi theorem

5.9 L1 is complete

5.10 Dense subsets of L1(R,R)

5.11 The Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma

5.11.1 The Cantor-Lebesgue theorem

5.12 Fubini’s theorem

5.12.1 Product σ-ﬁelds

5.12.2 π-systems and λ-systems

5.12.3 The monotone class theorem

5.12.4 Fubini for ﬁnite measures and bounded functions

5.12.5 Extensions to unbounded functions and to σ-ﬁnite
measures

The Daniell integral

6.1 The Daniell Integral

6.2 Monotone class theorems

6.3 Measure

6.5 · ∞ is the essential sup norm

6.6 The Radon-Nikodym Theorem

6.7 The dual space of Lp

6.7.1 The variations of a bounded functional

6.7.3 The case where µ(S) = ∞

6.8. INTEGRATION ON LOCALLY COMPACT HAUSDORFF SPACES.175

6.8 Integration on locally compact Hausdorﬀ spaces

6.8.1 Riesz representation theorems

6.8.2 Fubini’s theorem

6.9 The Riesz representation theorem redux

6.9.1 Statement of the theorem

6.9.2 Propositions in topology

6.9.3 Proof of the uniqueness of the µ restricted to B(X)

6.10 Existence

6.10.1 Deﬁnition

6.10.2 Measurability of the Borel sets

6.10.3 Compact sets have ﬁnite measure

6.10.4 Interior regularity

6.10.5 Conclusion of the proof

7.1 Wiener measure

7.1.1 The Big Path Space

7.1.2 The heat equation

7.1.3 Paths are continuous with probability one

7.3.1 Generalities about expectation and variance

7.3.2 Gaussian measures and their variances

7.3.3 The variance of a Gaussian with density

7.3.4 The variance of Brownian motion

7.4 The derivative of Brownian motion is white

Haar measure

8.1 Examples

8.1.2 Discrete groups

8.1.3 Lie groups

8.2 Topological facts

8.3 Construction of the Haar integral

8.4 Uniqueness

8.5 µ(G) < ∞ if and only if G is compact

8.6 The group algebra

8.7 The involution

8.7.1 The modular function

8.7.2 Deﬁnition of the involution

8.7.3 Relation to convolution

8.7.4 Banach algebras with involutions

8.8 The algebra of ﬁnite measures

8.8.1 Algebras and coalgebras

9.1 Maximal ideals

9.1.1 Existence

9.1.2 The maximal spectrum of a ring

9.1.3 Maximal ideals in a commutative algebra

9.1.4 Maximal ideals in the ring of continuous functions

9.2 Normed algebras

9.3 The Gelfand representation

9.3.1 Invertible elements in a Banach algebra form an
open set

9.3.3 The spectral radius

9.3.4 The generalized Wiener theorem

9.4 Self-adjoint algebras

9.4.1 An important generalization

9.4.2 An important application

9.5.1 Statement of the theorem

9.5.2 SpecB(T) = SpecA(T)

9.5.3 A direct proof of the spectral theorem

The spectral theorem

10.1 Resolutions of the identity

10.2 The spectral theorem for bounded normal

10.3 Stone’s formula

10.4 Unbounded operators

10.5 Operators and their domains

10.6 The adjoint

10.7 Self-adjoint operators

10.8 The resolvent

10.9 The multiplication operator form of the spec-

10.9.1 Cyclic vectors

10.9.2 The general case

10.9.4 The functional calculus

10.9.5 Resolutions of the identity

10.10 The Riesz-Dunford calculus

10.11. LORCH’S PROOF OF THE SPECTRAL THEOREM. 279

10.11 Lorch’s proof of the spectral theorem

10.11.1 Positive operators

10.11.2 The point spectrum

10.11.3 Partition into pure types

10.11.4 Completion of the proof

10.13 Appendix. The closed graph theorem

Stone’s theorem

11.1 von Neumann’s Cayley transform

11.1.1 An elementary example

11.2. EQUIBOUNDED SEMI-GROUPS ON A FRECHET SPACE. 299

11.2 Equibounded semi-groups on a Frechet space

11.2.1 The inﬁnitesimal generator

11.3 The diﬀerential equation

11.3.1 The resolvent

11.5 The Hille Yosida theorem

11.6 Contraction semigroups

11.6.1 Dissipation and contraction

11.6.2 A special case: exp(t(B−I)) with B ≤1

11.7 Convergence of semigroups

11.8 The Trotter product formula

11.8.1 Lie’s formula

11.8.2 Chernoﬀ’s theorem

11.8.3 The product formula

11.8.4 Commutators

11.8.5 The Kato-Rellich theorem

11.8.6 Feynman path integrals

11.9 The Feynman-Kac formula

11.10 The free Hamiltonian and the Yukawa po-

11.10.1 The Yukawa potential and the resolvent

11.10.2 The time evolution of the free Hamiltonian

12.1 Bound states and scattering states

12.1.1 Schwartzschild’s theorem

12.1.2 The mean ergodic theorem

12.1.3 General considerations

12.1.4 Using the mean ergodic theorem

12.1.5 The Amrein-Georgescu theorem

12.1.6 Kato potentials

12.1.7 Applying the Kato-Rellich method

12.1.8 Using the inequality (12.7)

12.2. NON-NEGATIVE OPERATORS AND QUADRATIC FORMS. 345

12.1.9 Ruelle’s theorem

12.2 Non-negative operators and quadratic forms

12.2.1 Fractional powers of a non-negative self-adjoint op-
erator

12.2.2 Quadratic forms

12.2.3 Lower semi-continuous functions

12.2.4 The main theorem about quadratic forms

12.2.5 Extensions and cores

12.2.6 The Friedrichs extension

12.3 Dirichlet boundary conditions

12.3.2 Generalizing the domain and the coeﬃcients

12.3.3 A Sobolev version of Rademacher’s theorem

12.4. RAYLEIGH-RITZ AND ITS APPLICATIONS. 357

12.4 Rayleigh-Ritz and its applications

12.4.1 The discrete spectrum and the essential spectrum

12.4.2 Characterizing the discrete spectrum

12.4.3 Characterizing the essential spectrum

12.4.4 Operators with empty essential spectrum

12.4.5 A characterization of compact operators

12.4.6 The variational method

12.4.7 Variations on the variational formula

12.4.8 The secular equation

12.5. THE DIRICHLET PROBLEM FOR BOUNDED DOMAINS. 365

12.5 The Dirichlet problem for bounded domains

12.6 Valence

12.6.1 Two dimensional examples

12.6.2 H¨uckel theory of hydrocarbons

12.7 Davies’s proof of the spectral theorem

12.7.1 Symbols

12.7.2 Slowly decreasing functions

12.7.3 Stokes’ formula in the plane

12.7.4 Almost holomorphic extensions

12.7.5 The Heﬄer-Sj¨ostrand formula

12.7.6 A formula for the resolvent

12.7.7 The functional calculus

12.7.8 Resolvent invariant subspaces

12.7.9 Cyclic subspaces

12.7.10 The spectral representation

Scattering theory

13.1 Examples

13.1.1 Translation - truncation

13.1.2 Incoming representations

13.1.3 Scattering residue

13.2 Breit-Wigner

13.4 The Sinai representation theorem

13.5 The Stone - von Neumann theorem