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Table Of Contents

1.1 Metric spaces
1.2 Completeness and completion
1.3. NORMED VECTOR SPACES AND BANACH SPACES. 17
1.3 Normed vector spaces and Banach spaces
1.4 Compactness
1.5 Total Boundedness
1.6 Separability
1.7 Second Countability
1.8 Conclusion of the proof of Theorem 1.5.1
1.9 Dini’s lemma
1.11. ZORN’S LEMMA AND THE AXIOM OF CHOICE. 23
1.11 Zorn’s lemma and the axiom of choice
1.12 The Baire category theorem
1.13 Tychonoff’s theorem
1.14 Urysohn’s lemma
1.15 The Stone-Weierstrass theorem
1.17 The Hahn-Banach theorem
1.18. THE UNIFORM BOUNDEDNESS PRINCIPLE. 35
1.18 The Uniform Boundedness Principle
2.1 Hilbert space
2.1.1 Scalar products
2.1.2 The Cauchy-Schwartz inequality
2.1.3 The triangle inequality
2.1.4 Hilbert and pre-Hilbert spaces
2.1.5 The Pythagorean theorem
2.1.6 The theorem of Apollonius
2.1.7 The theorem of Jordan and von Neumann
2.1.8 Orthogonal projection
2.1.9 The Riesz representation theorem
2.1.10 What is L2(T)?
2.1.11 Projection onto a direct sum
2.1.12 Projection onto a finite dimensional subspace
2.1.13 Bessel’s inequality
2.1.14 Parseval’s equation
2.1.15 Orthonormal bases
2.2 Self-adjoint transformations
2.2.1 Non-negative self-adjoint transformations
2.3 Compact self-adjoint transformations
2.4 Fourier’s Fourier series
2.4.1 Proof by integration by parts
2.4.3 G˚arding’s inequality, special case
2.5 The Heisenberg uncertainty principle
2.6 The Sobolev Spaces
2.7 G˚arding’s inequality
2.8 Consequences of G˚arding’s inequality
2.9. EXTENSION OF THE BASIC LEMMAS TO MANIFOLDS. 79
2.9 Extension of the basic lemmas to manifolds
2.10 Example: Hodge theory
2.11 The resolvent
The Fourier Transform
3.1 Conventions, especially about 2π
3.2 Convolution goes to multiplication
3.3 Scaling
3.4 Fourier transform of a Gaussian is a Gaus-
3.5 The multiplication formula
3.6 The inversion formula
3.7 Plancherel’s theorem
3.8 The Poisson summation formula
3.9 The Shannon sampling theorem
3.10. THE HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE. 91
3.10 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
3.11 Tempered distributions
3.11.1 Examples of Fourier transforms of elements of S
Measure theory
4.1 Lebesgue outer measure
4.2 Lebesgue inner measure
4.3 Lebesgue’s definition of measurability
4.4 Caratheodory’s definition of measurability
4.5 Countable additivity
4.7.2 Metric outer measures
4.8 Constructing outer measures, Method II
4.8.1 An example
4.9 Hausdorff measure
4.10 Hausdorff dimension
4.11 Push forward
4.12 The Hausdorff dimension of fractals
4.12.1 Similarity dimension
4.12.2 The string model
4.13 The Hausdorff metric and Hutchinson’s the-
4.14 Affine examples
4.14.1 The classical Cantor set
4.14.2 The Sierpinski Gasket
4.14.3 Moran’s theorem
The Lebesgue integral
5.1 Real valued measurable functions
5.2 The integral of a non-negative function
5.3 Fatou’s lemma
5.4 The monotone convergence theorem
5.5 The space L1(X,R)
5.6 The dominated convergence theorem
5.7 Riemann integrability
5.8 The Beppo - Levi theorem
5.9 L1 is complete
5.10 Dense subsets of L1(R,R)
5.11 The Riemann-Lebesgue Lemma
5.11.1 The Cantor-Lebesgue theorem
5.12 Fubini’s theorem
5.12.1 Product σ-fields
5.12.2 π-systems and λ-systems
5.12.3 The monotone class theorem
5.12.4 Fubini for finite measures and bounded functions
5.12.5 Extensions to unbounded functions and to σ-finite measures
The Daniell integral
6.1 The Daniell Integral
6.2 Monotone class theorems
6.3 Measure
6.5 · ∞ is the essential sup norm
6.6 The Radon-Nikodym Theorem
6.7 The dual space of Lp
6.7.1 The variations of a bounded functional
6.7.3 The case where µ(S) = ∞
6.8. INTEGRATION ON LOCALLY COMPACT HAUSDORFF SPACES.175
6.8 Integration on locally compact Hausdorff spaces
6.8.1 Riesz representation theorems
6.8.2 Fubini’s theorem
6.9 The Riesz representation theorem redux
6.9.1 Statement of the theorem
6.9.2 Propositions in topology
6.9.3 Proof of the uniqueness of the µ restricted to B(X)
6.10 Existence
6.10.1 Definition
6.10.2 Measurability of the Borel sets
6.10.3 Compact sets have finite measure
6.10.4 Interior regularity
6.10.5 Conclusion of the proof
7.1 Wiener measure
7.1.1 The Big Path Space
7.1.2 The heat equation
7.1.3 Paths are continuous with probability one
7.3.1 Generalities about expectation and variance
7.3.2 Gaussian measures and their variances
7.3.3 The variance of a Gaussian with density
7.3.4 The variance of Brownian motion
7.4 The derivative of Brownian motion is white
Haar measure
8.1 Examples
8.1.2 Discrete groups
8.1.3 Lie groups
8.2 Topological facts
8.3 Construction of the Haar integral
8.4 Uniqueness
8.5 µ(G) < ∞ if and only if G is compact
8.6 The group algebra
8.7 The involution
8.7.1 The modular function
8.7.2 Definition of the involution
8.7.3 Relation to convolution
8.7.4 Banach algebras with involutions
8.8 The algebra of finite measures
8.8.1 Algebras and coalgebras
9.1 Maximal ideals
9.1.1 Existence
9.1.2 The maximal spectrum of a ring
9.1.3 Maximal ideals in a commutative algebra
9.1.4 Maximal ideals in the ring of continuous functions
9.2 Normed algebras
9.3 The Gelfand representation
9.3.1 Invertible elements in a Banach algebra form an open set
9.3.3 The spectral radius
9.3.4 The generalized Wiener theorem
9.4 Self-adjoint algebras
9.4.1 An important generalization
9.4.2 An important application
9.5.1 Statement of the theorem
9.5.2 SpecB(T) = SpecA(T)
9.5.3 A direct proof of the spectral theorem
The spectral theorem
10.1 Resolutions of the identity
10.2 The spectral theorem for bounded normal
10.3 Stone’s formula
10.4 Unbounded operators
10.5 Operators and their domains
10.6 The adjoint
10.7 Self-adjoint operators
10.8 The resolvent
10.9 The multiplication operator form of the spec-
10.9.1 Cyclic vectors
10.9.2 The general case
10.9.4 The functional calculus
10.9.5 Resolutions of the identity
10.10 The Riesz-Dunford calculus
10.11. LORCH’S PROOF OF THE SPECTRAL THEOREM. 279
10.11 Lorch’s proof of the spectral theorem
10.11.1 Positive operators
10.11.2 The point spectrum
10.11.3 Partition into pure types
10.11.4 Completion of the proof
10.13 Appendix. The closed graph theorem
Stone’s theorem
11.1 von Neumann’s Cayley transform
11.1.1 An elementary example
11.2. EQUIBOUNDED SEMI-GROUPS ON A FRECHET SPACE. 299
11.2 Equibounded semi-groups on a Frechet space
11.2.1 The infinitesimal generator
11.3 The differential equation
11.3.1 The resolvent
11.5 The Hille Yosida theorem
11.6 Contraction semigroups
11.6.1 Dissipation and contraction
11.6.2 A special case: exp(t(B−I)) with B ≤1
11.7 Convergence of semigroups
11.8 The Trotter product formula
11.8.1 Lie’s formula
11.8.2 Chernoff’s theorem
11.8.3 The product formula
11.8.4 Commutators
11.8.5 The Kato-Rellich theorem
11.8.6 Feynman path integrals
11.9 The Feynman-Kac formula
11.10 The free Hamiltonian and the Yukawa po-
11.10.1 The Yukawa potential and the resolvent
11.10.2 The time evolution of the free Hamiltonian
12.1 Bound states and scattering states
12.1.1 Schwartzschild’s theorem
12.1.2 The mean ergodic theorem
12.1.3 General considerations
12.1.4 Using the mean ergodic theorem
12.1.5 The Amrein-Georgescu theorem
12.1.6 Kato potentials
12.1.7 Applying the Kato-Rellich method
12.1.8 Using the inequality (12.7)
12.2. NON-NEGATIVE OPERATORS AND QUADRATIC FORMS. 345
12.1.9 Ruelle’s theorem
12.2 Non-negative operators and quadratic forms
12.2.1 Fractional powers of a non-negative self-adjoint op- erator
12.2.2 Quadratic forms
12.2.3 Lower semi-continuous functions
12.2.4 The main theorem about quadratic forms
12.2.5 Extensions and cores
12.2.6 The Friedrichs extension
12.3 Dirichlet boundary conditions
12.3.2 Generalizing the domain and the coefficients
12.3.3 A Sobolev version of Rademacher’s theorem
12.4. RAYLEIGH-RITZ AND ITS APPLICATIONS. 357
12.4 Rayleigh-Ritz and its applications
12.4.1 The discrete spectrum and the essential spectrum
12.4.2 Characterizing the discrete spectrum
12.4.3 Characterizing the essential spectrum
12.4.4 Operators with empty essential spectrum
12.4.5 A characterization of compact operators
12.4.6 The variational method
12.4.7 Variations on the variational formula
12.4.8 The secular equation
12.5. THE DIRICHLET PROBLEM FOR BOUNDED DOMAINS. 365
12.5 The Dirichlet problem for bounded domains
12.6 Valence
12.6.1 Two dimensional examples
12.6.2 H¨uckel theory of hydrocarbons
12.7 Davies’s proof of the spectral theorem
12.7.1 Symbols
12.7.2 Slowly decreasing functions
12.7.3 Stokes’ formula in the plane
12.7.4 Almost holomorphic extensions
12.7.5 The Heffler-Sj¨ostrand formula
12.7.6 A formula for the resolvent
12.7.7 The functional calculus
12.7.8 Resolvent invariant subspaces
12.7.9 Cyclic subspaces
12.7.10 The spectral representation
Scattering theory
13.1 Examples
13.1.1 Translation - truncation
13.1.2 Incoming representations
13.1.3 Scattering residue
13.2 Breit-Wigner
13.4 The Sinai representation theorem
13.5 The Stone - von Neumann theorem
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Math_Functions Real Variable Theory

Math_Functions Real Variable Theory

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