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Lipid Characteristic Lak

Lipid Characteristic Lak

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Published by: Laksilu Viduraga Peiris on Feb 08, 2010
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09/12/2010

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LIPID
 
 Name: T.L.V.PeirisIndex No:
GS/MSc/Food/3630/08University : University of Sri Jayawardenapura
Introduction
Lipids are formed from structural units with a pronounced hydrophobicity. This solubilitycharacteristic, rather than a common structural feature, is unique for this class of compounds.Lipids are soluble in organic solvents but not in water. Water insolubility is the analytical property used as the basis for their facile separation from proteins and carbohydrates.Some lipids are surface-active since they are amphiphilic molecules (contain both hydrophilicand hydrophobic moieties). Hence, they are polar and thus distinctly different from neutrallipids.The majority of lipids are derivatives of fatty acids. In these so-called acyl lipids the fattyacids are present as esters and in some minor lipid groups in amide form. The acyl residueinfluences strongly the hydrophobicity and the reactivity of the acyl lipids.Primarily triacylglycerols (also called triglycerides) are deposited in some animal tissues andorgans of some plants. Lipid content in such storage tissues can rise to 15–20% or higher andso serve as a commercial source for isolation of triacylglycerols. When this lipid is refined, it isavailable to the consumer as an edible oil or fat.The nutritive/physiological importance of lipidsis based on their role as fuel molecules (37 kJ
 / 
gor 9 kcal
 / 
g triacylglycerols) and as a source of 
 
essential fatty acids and vitamins. Apart from these roles, some other lipid properties areindispensable in food handling or processing.These include their melting behavior and the pleasant creamy or oily taste that is recognized by a receptor, which has recently been identified.Therefore, there are all together six taste qualities.Fats also serve as solvents for certain taste substances and numerous odor substances. On thewhole, fats enrich the nutritional quality and are of importance in food to achieve the desiredtexture, specific mouthfeel and aroma, anda satisfactory aroma retention. In addition, foods can be prepared by deep frying, i. e. by dipping the food into fat or oil heated to a relativelyhightemperature.The lipid class of compounds also includes some important food aroma substances or precursorswhich are degraded to aroma compounds. Some lipid compounds are indespensable as foodemulsifiers,while others are important as fat- or oilsolublepigments or food colorants.
4.1. Specific gravity of oils4.1.1. Materials
Oil samplesSpecific gravity bottlesWeighing scale
4.1.2. Method
Pre weighed specific gravity bottle of 50 mL capacity was filled with distilled water at 30 ºC tooverflow and inserted the stopper. After inserting the stopper the bottle was immersed in a water  bath at 30 ºC for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes bottle was removed from the water bath andwiped till it became completely dry.Weight of the bottle and contents was taken.Oil samples were cooled to 30 ºC and filled with oil (coconut oil) to the dried specific gravity bottle as before. Then the stopper was inserted and bottle was wiped off. Weight of the bottle and palm oil was taken.Then the specific gravity of oil was calculated using following formula.
Specific Gravity = W
3
-W
1
W
2
-W
1
Where,W
1
= Weight of empty SG bottleW
2
= Weight of SG bottle + Water W
3
= Weight of SG bottle + oil
4.1.3. Results
For palm oilSpecific Gravity = W
3
-W
1
W
2
-W
1
= 73.3815g-29.4648g77.7672-29.4648g= 43.916748.3024
Lipid Characteristics Page 2
 
= 0 .91For soya oilSpecific Gravity = W
3
-W
1
W
2
-W
1
= 74.7305g-28.3128g79.1478g-28.3128g = 46.4177g
50.8350g= 0.91
4.2. Viscosity of oils4.2.1. Materials
Viscometer [canon fenska viscometer]Oil samplesWater 
4.2.2. Method
Viscosity of oil samples were measured using Canon Fenska viscometer.100 ml of distilled water was added to the left arm of the viscometer. Time taken for water tomove from lower mark to the upper mark of the right arm was noted. Experiment was repeatedfor five times with water.Same procedure was followed for the oil samples and experiments were repeated for five timesto get an average value.Viscosity was calculated using following formulaTime = ViscosityDensity
Results
For palm oilTime = ViscosityDensity55 X60
=
Viscosity
 
0.91 X1000Viscosity = 3003000For water Time = ViscosityDensity2 X 60 = Viscosity1000Viscosity = 2 X60 X1000= 120000
Lipid Characteristics Page 3

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