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slow Abraham H. - Religions, Values, And Peak Experiences (1970)

slow Abraham H. - Religions, Values, And Peak Experiences (1970)

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Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow

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Religions, Values, and Peak ExperiencesAbraham H. MaslowContentsEditorial Introduction and PrefaceI. IntroductionII. Dichotomized Science and Dichotomized ReligionIII. The "Core-Religious" or "Transcendent" ExperienceIV. Organizational Dangers to Transcendent ExperiencesV. Hope, Skepticism, and Man's Higher NatureVI. Science and the Religious Liberals and Non-TheistsVII. Value-Free Education?VIII. ConclusionsAPPENDIXES:A. Religious Aspects of Peak ExperiencesB. The Third PsychologyC. Ethnocentric Phrasings of Peak-ExperiencesD. What is the Validity of Knowledge Gained inPeak-Experiences?E. Preface to "New Knowledge in Human Values"F. Rhapsodic, Isomorphic CommunicationsG. B-Values as Descriptions of Perceptionin Peak-ExperiencesH. Naturalistic Reasons for Preferring Growth-ValuesOver Regression-Values Under Good ConditionsI. An Example of B-AnalysisBibliographyReligions, Values, and Peak Experiences (c)1964 by Kappa Delta Pi and(c)1970 (preface) The Viking Press. Published by Penguin Books LimitedISBN 0 14 00.4262 8NOTE:Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences appears in under the "Fair Use" rulings regardingEditorial IntroductionThe world has seen increased communication among political and economic philosophies, amonConcurrently with this growth of international communication and the unity it has broughtTraditionally, religion has been of the spirit; science, of the body; and there has been aWilliam James, through his psychology, especially his Varieties of Religious Experience, aThis volume is presented as a contribution to philosophical and scientific thinking, as onE. I. F. Williams, EditorKappa Delta Pi PublicationsPrefaceSince this book was first written, there has been much turmoil in the world and, thereforeI think I can best state my warning against polarization and dichotomizing by a historicalBut on the other wing, the mystical (or experiential) also has its traps which I have notAnother possible booby trap for the (polarizing) mystics throughout history has been the dThe possibility that the inner voices, the "revelations," may be mistaken, a lesson from hImpatience (especially the built-in impatience of youth) dictates shortcuts of all kinds.The search for the exotic, the strange, the unusual, the uncommon has often taken the formThe rejection of a priestly caste who claimed to be exclusive custodians of a private hotTo summarize, the healthily Apollonian (which means integrated with the healthily DionysiaObviously, what I am suggesting here is a pervasively holistic attitude and way of thinkinThe same sort of thing is true for the relations between experientialism and-social reformIn this context I would like to refer to my demonstration in the Preface to the revised edWhat this all adds up to is this: small r religion is quite compatible, at the higher leveFor other reasons also, I now consider that the book was too imbalanced toward the individMy study of the failure of most Utopian efforts has taught me to ask the basic questions tFinally, I would now add to the peak experience material a greater consideration, not only
 
There is more an element of surprise, and of disbelief, and of esthetic shock in the peak-Peak-and plateau-experience differ also in their relations to death. The peak-experience iOlder people, making their peace with death, are more apt to be profoundly touched with (sVery important today in a topical sense is the realization that plateau experiencing can bThere is much more to say about these states which are clearly relevant to the life of traIf I were to summarize both the book and my remarks in this Preface in a few words, I woulThe reader who is especially interested in continuing developments along the lines of thisDr. Abraham H. MaslowThe W. P. Laughlin Charitable Foundation1 Saga LaneMenlo Park, California 94025May, 1970Footnotes1. I have found it useful to differentiate the subjective and naturalistic religious exper2. Colin Wilson's "Outsider" series will furnish all the examples necessary. (back)3. Numbers in parentheses refer to items in the Bibliography. (back)Chapter I.Book MenuReligions, Values, and Peak-ExperiencesAbraham H. MaslowChapter I. IntroductionSome time ago, after the Supreme Court decision on prayer in the public schools, a so-callI am very much in favor of a clear separation of church and state, and my reaction was autThe Supreme Court decisions on prayer in the public schools were seen (mistakenly, as we sThis is also true, paradoxically enough, for many orthodoxly positivistic scientists, philSomething of this sort is certainly true for many psychologists and many educators. It isThe other dominating theory of psychology, the Freudian, coming from a very different compAnd so official, orthodox, Freudian psychoanalysis remains essentially a system of psychopNeither are the humanistic scholars and artists of any great help these days. They used toBut in recent years and to this day, most humanistic scholars and most artists have sharedCertainly the young student coming to the study of the arts and the humanities will find tNo, it is quite clear from our experience of the last fifty years or so that the pre-1914We can no longer rely on tradition, on consensus, on cultural habit, on unanimity of belieOnly truth itself can be our foundation, our base for building. Only empirical, naturalistEspecially will our new knowledge of human nature probably give the humanists and the artiFootnotes1. As a matter of fact, this identity is so profoundly built into the English language thaPerhaps I can get out of this terminological difficulty in another way. If you look up theI shall, therefore, use these words, since I have no others to use, to refer to subjective2. This is an especially fantastic notion in the context of this lecture because human beh3. Numbers in parentheses refer to items in the Bibliography. (back)Chapter IIBook MenuBook MenuReligions, Values, and Peak-ExperiencesAbraham H. MaslowChapter II. Dichotomized Science and Dichotomized ReligionMy thesis is, in general, that new developments in psychology are forcing a profound changIt is because both science and religion have been too narrowly conceived, and have been toSuch an attitude dooms science to be nothing more than technology, amoral and non-ethicalThis dichotomizing of knowledge and values has also pathologized the organized religions bBut something is happening now to both science and religion, at least to their more intellJust as each science was once a part of the body of organized religion but then broke awayThis relation between religion and science could be stated in such a dichotomous, competitSooner or later, we shall have to redefine both religion and science.
 
As always, dichotomizing pathologizes (and pathology dichotomizes). Isolating two interrelWhen all that could be called "religious" (naturalistically as well as supernaturalisticalSuch a split-off religion generates split-off and partial definition of all necessary concThe word "sacred" is another instance of the pathologizing by isolation and by splitting-oAnd this brings us to the other half of the dichotomy, dichotomized science. Whatever we mFor instance, in the division of the ideal and the actual, dichotomized science claims thaSo also for the exclusion of the sacred and the transcendent from the jurisdiction of scieTo mention only one example that has to do directly with education, it could be shown easiAnd so it could go on and on almost indefinitely. I have already written much on scientistObviously such a conclusion concerns the spiritual and ethical values that I started withSuch a science would and-insofar as it already exists-does include much that has been callI think I may go so far as to say that if we were to make a list of the key words which haLet me try to say it in still another way. One could say that the nineteenth-century atheiAs a matter of fact, contemporary existential and humanistic psychologists would probablyChapter IIIBook MenuBook MenuReligions, Values, and Peak-ExperiencesAbraham H. MaslowChapter III. The "Core-Religious," or "Transcendent," EperienceThe very beginning, the intrinsic core, the essence, the universal nucleus of every knownBut it has recently begun to appear that these "revelations" or mystical illuminations canIn a word, we can study today what happened in the past and was then explainable in supernAlso this kind of study leads us to another very plausible hypothesis: to the extent thatTo understand this better, we must differentiate the prophets in general from the organizeCharacteristically the abstraction-type of the legalist-ecclesiastic is the conserving orgIt will be helpful here to talk about a pilot investigation, still in its beginnings, of tAny person whose character structure (or Weltanschauung, or way of life) forces him to tryIf you will permit me to use this developing but not yet validated vocabulary, I may thenIf you look closely at the internal history of most of the world religions, you will findThis cleavage between the mystics and the legalists, if I may call them that, remains at bA similar split can be detected in psychology, in anthropology, and, I am quite sure, in oTo summarize, it looks quite probable that the peak-experience may be the model of the rel(Not only this, but I may add a new possibility for scientific investigation of transcendeTo approach this whole discussion from another angle, in effect what I have been saying isIn addition, what seems to be emerging from this new source of data is that this essentialFootnotes1. If we were to go further with our analysis we should find that succeeding upon the discI do not discuss these "s" factors here because the "g" factor is far more important for t2. I have made no effort in this chapter, or in the next, to balance accounts by detailingChapter IVBook MenuBook MenuReligions, Values, and Peak-ExperiencesAbraham H. MaslowChapter IV. Organizational Dangers to Transcendent ExperiencesIt has sometimes seemed to me as I interviewed "nontheistic religious people" that they haThe reason I now bring up this impression (which may or may not be validated, may or may nThis is in contrast with my impression that "serious" people of all kinds tend to be ableIn any case, once this paradox is thought through, it ceases to be a paradox and becomes,What prevents this from happening? In general, all and any of the forces that diminish us,Perhaps now what appeared to me first as a paradox can be seen as a matter of fact, not atThere may also be another such inverse relationship-between organizationism and religiousIf organized religion has any ultimate effects at all, it is through its power to shake thThis is probably another reason why transcendent experiences seem to occur more frequently

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