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Political Science class x (10)

Political Science class x (10)

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Published by bhupenderrana
Notes for political science of class x (10) Of CBSE
Notes for political science of class x (10) Of CBSE

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Published by: bhupenderrana on Feb 10, 2010
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Chapter 1 POWER SHARING
1. Describe the ethnic composition of the people in Belgium.
i.The ethnic composition of Belgium is very complex. Of the country’s total population, 59 per cent lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch language.ii.Another 40 per cent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French..iii.Remaining 1 per cent of the Belgians speak German.iv.In the capital city Brussels, 80 per cent people speak French while 20 per cent areDutch-speaking.v.The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. Thiswas resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economicdevelopment and education much later. This led to tension between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s
State the basic reason for the tension between the French speaking and Dutch speakingcommunities in Belgium. ( Answer point v above)2. Describe the ethnic diversity of the people in Sri Lanka.
i.The major social groups in Sri Lanka are the
Sinhala-speakers
(74 per cent)
and theTamil-speakers
(18 per cent). Among Tamils, there are two subgroups. Tamil nativesof the country are called ‘Sri Lankan Tamils’ (13 per cent). The rest, whose fore fatherscame from India as plantation workers during colonial period, are called ‘IndianTamils’.ii.Most of the Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhist, while most of the Tamils are Hindusor Muslims. There are about 7 per cent Christians, who are both Tamil and Sinhala.(Name the conflicting group of people in Srilanka
: Sinhala-speakers
 
and the Tamil-speakers
)
3. State the basic reasons for the tension ( Civil War ) between Sinhala and Tamil speakingpeople in Sri Lanka. Or Why do the Sri Lankan Tamils feel alienated in their country?
i.In Sri Lanka, the Sinhala community enjoyed a bigger majority and could impose itswill on the entire country. As a result, the democratically elected government adopteda series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy.ii.In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language,disregarding Tamil.iii.The governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.iv.A new constitution stipulated that the state should protect and foster Buddhism. Allthese government measures, coming one after the other, gradually increased the feelingof alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils.v.They felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders wassensitive to their language and culture. They felt that the Constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobsand other opportunities and ignored their interests.vi.The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for- the recognition of Tamil asan official language,- for regional autonomy and- equality of opportunity in securingeducation and jobs. But their demand for more autonomy to provinces populated by theTamils was repeatedly denied.ISB100
 
vii.By 1980s, several political organizations were formed demanding an independent TamilEelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka. The distrust between the twocommunities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a civil war. (any four)
What were the majoritarian measures adopted by the Sri Lankan Government?
(Write points ii to iv above)
4. Define the term ‘majoritarianism’.
A belief that the majority community should be able to rule the country in whichever ways itwant, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority is majoritarianism’.
5. How did the Belgian Government resolve the ethnic diversities and tension betweenthem? Or How was power shared between the people in Belgium?
i.The Belgian Government recognized the existence of regional differences and culturaldiversities.ii.Between 1970 and 1993 they amended their constitution four times to work out anarrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country. Thearrangement they worked out is different from any other country and is veryinnovative.iii.Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of majorityof members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can makedecisions unilaterally.iv.Many powers of the central government have been given to state governments of thetwo regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the CentralGovernment.v.Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equalrepresentation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in theCentral Government.vi.Apart from the Central and the State Government, there is a third kind of government.This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one languagecommunity – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live. Thisgovernment has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.vii.They helped to avoid- civic strife between the two major communities and- a possibledivision of the country on linguistic lines.6.
State the two sets of reasons in favour of power sharing. Or What are theprudential and moral reasons for power sharing?
i.Prudential Reasons: Power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibilityof conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of politicalorder.ii.Moral Reasons: Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic ruleinvolves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live withits effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. Alegitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a chance inthe system.ISB101
 
7. Describe the horizontal distribution of power. What are its advantages?
i.Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executiveand judiciary. We call this horizontal distribution of power because it allows differentorgans of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers.ii.Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Eachorgan checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions.iii.Similarly, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can check thefunctioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures.
This arrangement is called asystem of checks and balances.8. Describe the vertical division of power. Or What is meant by federal division of power?
i.Power can be shared among governments at different levels – a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. Such a generalgovernment for the entire country is usually called federal government. In India, we refer to it as the Central or Union Government.ii.The governments at the provincial or regional level are called by different names indifferent countries. In India, we call them State Governments. This is called federaldivision of power.iii.The same principle can be extended to levels of government lower than the Stategovernment, such as the municipality and panchayat. Division of powers involvinghigher and lower levels of government is called vertical division of power.
9. Describe the power sharing among different social groups.
i.Power may be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguisticgroups. ‘Community government’ in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement.ii.In some countries, there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby sociallyweaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration.
10. Describe the power sharing among political parties, pressure groups and movements.
i.Power sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressuregroups and movements control or influence those in power. In contemporarydemocracies, political competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand.ii.In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent differentideologies and social groups. Sometimes this kind of sharing can be direct, when two or more parties form an alliance to contest elections. If their alliance is elected, they form acoalition government and thus share power.iii.In a democracy, we find interest groups such as those of traders, businessmen,industrialists, farmers and industrial workers. They also will have a share ingovernmental power, either through participation in governmental committees or  bringing influence on the decision making process
11. Describe the different forms of power sharing in democracies. Give examples.(Write 1
st
point of answers 7, 8, 9 and 10)
ISB102

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