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Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

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Published by aceleaf
History of ottoman Empire
History of ottoman Empire

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Published by: aceleaf on Feb 10, 2010
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Ottoman Empire
The
Ottoman Empire
or 
Ottoman State
(Ottoman Turkish: هی ّنامثع هی ّلع ت ْود 
 Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye
,
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu
or 
Osmanlı Devleti
), alsoknown by its contemporaries as the
Turkish Empire
or 
Turkey
 
), was an Islamicempire that lasted from 1299 to November 1, 1922
which was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923.At the height of its power (16
th
 –17
th
The Ottoman Empirecontained 29 provinces and numerousvassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others gained various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire also temporarily gained authority over distant overseas landsthrough declarations of allegiance to theOttoman Sultan and Caliph, such as thedeclaration by the Sultan of Acehin 1565; or through the temporary acquisitions of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, such as Lanzarote(1585).
The empire was at the centre of interactions between theEasternandWestern worlds for  six centuries. WithConstantinopleas its capital city,
and vast control of landsaround the eastern Mediterranean during the reign of  Suleyman the Magnificent(ruled 1520 to 1566), the Ottoman Empire was, in many respects, anIslamic successor to the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
History
Rise (1299–1453)
With the demise of theSeljuk Sultanate of Rūm(circa 1300), Turkish Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent states, the so-calledGhazi emirates.By 1300, a weakenedByzantine Empirehad seen most of its Anatolian provinces lost to ten Ghazi principalities. One of theGhazi emirateswas led byOsman I(from which the name Ottoman is derived), son of Ertuğrulin the region of Eskişehir in western Anatolia. Osman I extended the frontiers of Ottoman settlement towards the edge of theByzantineEmpire. He moved the Ottoman capital toBursa, and shaped the early political development of the nation. Given the nickname “Kara” (which means “black” in modernTurkish, but alternatively meant “brave” or “strong” in old Turkish) for his courage,
Osman I was admired as a strong and dynamic ruler long after his death, as evident in thecenturies-old Turkish phrase, “may he be as good as Osman.” His reputation has also been burnished by the medieval Turkish story known as “Osman’s Dream”, a foundationmyth in which the young Osman was inspired to conquest by a prescient vision of empire(according to his dream, the empire is a big tree whose roots spread through threecontinents and whose branches cover the sky). In this period, a formalOttomangovernment was created whose institutions would change drastically over the life of theempire. The government used the legal entity known as themillet, under which religious
 
and ethnic minorities were able to manage their own affairs with substantialindependence from central control.In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the EasternMediterranean and theBalkans. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from theVenetiansin 1387, and the Turkish victory at the Battle of Kosovoin 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbianpower in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansioninto Europe. TheBattle of Nicopolis in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale crusadeof theMiddle Ages, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottomans. With the extension of Turkish dominion into the Balkans, the strategicconquest of Constantinoplebecame a crucial objective. The Empire controlled nearly all of theformer Byzantine landssurrounding the city, but theByzantineswere temporarily relieved whenTamerlaneinvadedAnatolia with theBattle of Ankara in 1402, taking SultanBayezid Ias a prisoner. Part of the Ottoman territories in the Balkans (such asThessaloniki, Macedonia and Kosovo) were temporarily lost after 1402, but were later recovered byMurad II  between the 1430s and 1450s. The capture of Bayezid I threw the Turks into disorder. The state fell into a civil war which lasted from 1402 to 1413, as Bayezid’s sons fought over succession. It ended whenMehmed Iemerged as the sultan and restored Ottoman power, bringing an end to theInterregnum.His grandson,Mehmed the Conqueror , reorganized the state and the military, and demonstrated his martial prowess by capturing Constantinople on May 29, 1453, at the age of 21. The city became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire, andMehmed II assumed the title of 
 Kayser-i Rûm
(Roman Emperor). However, this title wasnot recognized by the Greeks or Western Europe, and the RussianCzarsalso claimed to be the successors of the Eastern Imperial title. To consolidate his claim, Mehmed IIaspired to gain control over the Western capital, Rome, and Ottoman forces occupied parts of theItalian peninsula, starting fromOtrantoandApuliaon July 28, 1480. But after  Mehmed II’s death on May 3, 1481, the campaign in Italy was cancelled and the Ottomanforces retreated.
Growth (1453–1683)
This period in Ottoman history can roughly be divided into two distinct eras: an era of territorial, economic, and cultural growth prior to 1566, followed by an era of relativemilitary and political stagnation.
Expansion and apogee (1453–1566)
Mehmed IIentersFall of Constantinople. The Ottoman conquest of Constantinoplein 1453 cemented the status of the Empire asthe preeminent power in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. During this time, the Ottoman Empire entered along period of conquest and expansion, extending its borders deep into Europe and North Africa. Conquests on land were driven by thediscipline and innovation of the Ottoman military; and on the sea, the Ottoman navy
 
aided this expansion significantly. The navy also contested and protected key seagoingtrade routes, in competition with the Italian city states in theBlack Sea, Aegean and Mediterraneanseas and the Portuguese in theRed Seaand Indian Ocean. The state also flourished economically thanks to its control of the major overland trade routes betweenEurope and Asia.
This lock-hold on trade between western Europe and Asia isfrequently cited
[
 
]
as a primary motivational factor for  Isabella I of Castile to fund Christopher Columbus’s westward journey to find a sailing route to Asia.The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective sultans. SultanSelim I(1512–1520) dramatically expanded the Empire’s eastern and southern frontiers by defeatingShah Ismailof Safavid Persia, in theBattle of Chaldiran.
 Selim IestablishedOttoman rule in Egypt, and created a naval presence on theRed Sea. After  this Ottoman expansion, a competition started between thePortuguese Empireand theOttoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region.
Selim’s successor,Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566), further expanded upon Selim’s conquests. After capturingBelgradein 1521, Suleiman conquered the southernand central parts of theKingdom of Hungary (while the western, northern and northeastern parts weren’t conquered)
and establishedOttoman rulein the territoryof present-day Hungary (except western parts) and other Central European territories, after his victory in theBattle of Mohácsin 1526. (See also:Ottoman–Hungarian Wars
 
).He then laidsiege to Vienna in 1529, but failed to take the city after the onset of winter  forced his retreat.
In 1532,another planned attack on Vienna with an army thought to be over 250,000 strong was repulsed 97 kilometres (60 mi) south of Vienna, at thefortress of Güns. After further advances by the Ottomans in 1543, the Habsburg ruler Ferdinandofficially recognised Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in 1547. During thereign of Suleiman,Transylvania,Wallachia and, intermittently,Moldavia, became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire. In the east, theOttomanstook Baghdad  from thePersiansin 1535, gaining control of Mesopotamiaand naval access to the Persian Gulf . By the end of Suleiman’s reign, the Empire’s population reached about15,000,000 people.
Battle of Mohács(1526) and the Ottoman conquest of Hungary.Barbarossa Hayreddin Pashadefeated theHoly Leagueof  Charles Vunder the command of Andrea Doriaat theBattle of Prevezain 1538. Under Selim and Suleiman, the Empire became a dominant naval force, controlling muchof theMediterranean Sea.
The exploits of the Ottoman admiral Barbarossa HayreddinPasha, who commanded theOttoman Navyduring Suleiman’s reign, led to a number of  military victories over Christian navies. Among these were the conquest of  Tunisand Algeriafrom Spain; the evacuation of MuslimsandJewsfrom Spain to the safety of  Ottoman lands (particularlySalonica,Cyprus, andConstantinople) during the Spanish Inquisition; and the capture of  Nice from theHoly Roman Empire in 1543. This last conquest occurred on behalf of France as a joint venture between the forces of the French

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