ing the stages of creation that followthese events, or in the course ot the ac-tual history of the Dogon.
give a fewevamples here of how they are repre-sented by the masks.Pullo,
When Griaule collected intormatinn onthe mask known
"Peul" or "Fu-lani" (Griaule 1938:569-72, fig.
hisinformant described it in terms of "frontspeech,"
The real name otthis mask is
"the runner" (Fig. 5).It is always worn by very young menwho have just joined the society
m'isks after leaving the retreat that fol-lows circumcision. The performer of thismask wears a white tunic and a cordaround his neck from which fibers hangto his knees. In one hand he holds agourd, in the other a lance; between hislegs is
small wooden i~orse. he
isthe first mask to appear after the drumcall. He does not dance, but rather runshere and there in disorder. Althoughkeeping to the edge ot the pertormancearea, he later rejoins the series ot othermasks that appear atter him in single file.The
epresents Ogo betare histransformation into the Fox. Althoughthe mask emphasizes his primar); intan-tileaspect, it also shows his characteristicindependencc. It refers to Ogo's tearingout a piece of his placenta that would be-come the ark; finding himself alone andincomplete; stealing seeds from Amma,which he put in a gourd, likewise stolen;holding a weapon; and riding a horse,thereby recalling the journeys he madebetween Heaven andEarth inanattemptto recover the rest of his placenta and his
lost twin. The red fibers worn wi,h t~mask are the blood of the wounds
tlicted on Ogo
cut tongue, Wound,alarynx, and circumcised genitalswhen he attempted to expropriate
himself the souls of the Nommo
was sacrificed; he was thus deprivedspeech and of his primordial androgmpAfter all these events, he was trans.formed into the Fox and condem. 2dGremain on Earth (Griaule
The knowlediithat Amma accorded Ogo in the begin.ning and never removed from him wouldbe transmitted to men on the divinationtableswhere they
ould read footprintso(the Fox's descendants. These are not,however, obligated to tell the truth.Various features of the
ma&evoke the status a111 life of the Fo
comes and g0i.q;
ambles about in the fields without orderor any particular direction, or lines
with the procession of other masks.
ilarly, the Fox's di~inationables, drawqin the sand, are never oriented in a par;ticular direction. This is in contrast
buildings, furnishings, altars, and rockpaintings, which, whenever possible,are placed in accordance with the ;.~rd.n'il direction,.As sedentary farmers, the Dogon haveinserted a bit of irony in their first levelofinterpretation ot the
he young "Fulani nomad''herdsman, is like the Fox; he is withoilland of his own. Provided with
gourator carrying water and ~vith lance
attacking or detending himself, he
ders tirelessly, alone, irom pasture
to pasture land, lending his herd.
This antelope appears quite early inDogon cosmogony (Griaule
was born at thetime of the sacrifice of Nommo, thymythic genitor of humanity, which tookplace in the heavens.
s the matend'support of one ot Nommo's spi::rualprinciples. His stoy continues on E'lrth.Amma made
responsible forwatching over the path of the sun, theFox's transformed placenta, which theFox is always seeking in order to takepossession of his female twin. Unable
attain the sun, the Fox plots his revengeon the antelope. He digs holes in theearth and lies in wait. Running from eastto west,
falls into one of these holesand gravely wounds his feet. One ot thefirst ancestors, Dyongou Serou, triesheal him, but without much success,
gets up limping. He tries to reachthe Blacksmith, the twin of Nommo, to