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Today’s
Mathiit
’ians..... Tomorrow’s
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’ians.....
CONTENTS
*Synopsis
Questions
*Level - 1*Level - 2*Level - 3
*Level - 1*Level - 2*Level - 3
e-Learning Resources
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Application of Derivatives
UNIT - 3

SYNOPSIS
APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES
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)
Y
y = f(x)P

(x
1
,

y
1
)
l      e    n      g    t     h      o    f       n    o    r    m    a    l
NxTlength of subtangent
)
Y
M
lengthof subnormal
O

→
→
→
→

→
→
→

l e n g  t  h  o f t a n g  e n t
TANGENTS&NORMALS (DEFINITIONS AND RESULTS)
Let y =

(x) be the equation of a curve and let P

(x
1
, y
1
) bea point on it . Then derivative atP

(x
1
, y
1
) gives theslope of the tangent to the curve at P

.Equation of tangent at (x
1
, y
1
) is ;y - y
1
=
(x
1
)(x

- x
1
) .Equation of normal at (x
1
, y
1
) is ;
(x
1
)(y - y
1
) + (x - x
1
) = 0 .
N
OTE
:1.
If the tangent at any point P on the curve is parallel tothe axis of x then dy/dx = 0 at the point P .
2.
If the tangent at any point on the curve is parallel to theaxis of y, then dy/dx =
or dx/dy = 0 .
3.
If the tangent at any point on the curve is equallyinclined to both the axes then dy/dx = ± 1

.
4.
Length of the tangent (PT) =
( )
[ ]
( )
y f xf x
1 121
1
+
5.
Length of Subtangent (MT) =
( )
yf x
11
6.
Length of Normal (PN) =
(
)
[ ]
y f x
1 12
1
+
7.
Length of Subnormal (MN) =
)x(y
11
A
NGLE
B
ETWEEN
T
WO
C
URVES
:
Angle of intersection between two curves is defined asthe angle between the 2 tangents drawn to the 2 curvesat their point of intersection. If the angle between twocurves is 90° then they are called
ORTHOGONAL
curves.
R
ATE
M
EASURE
:
dydx
represents the rate of change in '

y

' with respect to'

x

' . For example if '

y

' is displacement and '

t

' is time then
dydt
represent the velocity .
MONOTONICITY INCREASING ANDDECREASING FUNCTION
DEFINITIONS AND RESULTS1.
Let y = f (x) be a given function with '

D

' as itsdomain . Let D
1

D then ,
Increasing function :
f (x) is said to be increasing in D, if for every x
1
, x
2

D
1
,x
1
> x
2

f (x
1
) > f (x
2
) .It means that the value of f (x) will keep onincreasing with an increase in the value of x, asshown in the figure .
Non - decreasing function :
f (x) is said to be non - decreasing in D
1
if forevery x
1
, x
2

D
1
, x
1
> x
2

f (x
1
) > f (x
2
) .It means that the value of f(x) would neverdecrease with an increase in the value of x, asshown in the figure
Decreasing function :
f (x) is said to be decreasing in D
1
if for everyx
1
, x
2

D
1
, x
1
> x
2

f (x
1
) < f (x
2
) .It means that the value of f (x) would decreasewith an increase in the value of x , as shown in thefigure .0y
>
x
>
Increasing function
0y
>
x
>
Non
-----
decreasingfunction
0y
>
x
>
Decreasing function

Mathiit e-Learning Resources
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Non - increasing function :
f (x) is said to be non - increasing in D
1
if for everyx
1
, x
2

D
1
, x
1
> x
2

f (x
1
) < f (x
2
) .It means that the value of f (x) would never increasewith an increase in the value of x , as shown in thefigure .
Basic Theorems :
Let y = f (x) be a given function, continuous in[a, b] and differentiable in (a, b) . Then :
*
f (x) is increasing in[a, b] if
f
(x)
0*
x
[a, b]
*
f (x) is non-decreasing in[a, b] if
f
(x)
0
x
[a, b]
*
f (x) is decreasing in[a, b] if
f
(x)
0**
x
[a, b]
*
f (x) is non-increasing in[a, b] if
f
(x)
0
x
[a, b]
Remarks :*
If
f
(x)
0 at countable number of points i.e. pointswhich make
f
(x) equal to zero (in between (a,b))don't form an interval, then f (x) would be increasingin [

a

, b

] .
**
If
f
(x)
0 at countable number of points i.e. pointswhich make
f
(x) equal to zero (in between (a,b))don't form an interval, then f (x) would be decreasingin [

a

, b

] .
(iii)
If f (0) = 0 &
f
(x)

0
x
R,then f (x)
0
x
(-

, 0] andf (x)
0
x
[0

,
) .
(iv)
If f (0) = 0 &
f
(x)

0
x
R , thenf (x)
0
x
(-

, 0) &f (x)
0
x
(0

,
) .
(v)
A function is said to be monotonic if it's eitherincreasing or decreasing .
(vi)
The points for which
f
(x) is equal to zero ordoesn't exist are called
critical points
. Here itshould also be noted that critical points are theinterior points of an interval .
(vii)
The stationary points are the points where
f
(x) = 0 in the domain .
2.(a)R
OLLE
'
S
T
HEOREM
:
Let f(x) be a function of x subject to the followingconditions :
(i)
f(x) is a continuous function of x in the closedinterval of a
x
b .
(ii)
f

(x) exists for every point in the open interval

a < x < b .
(iii)
f(a) = f(b) . Then there exists at least one pointx = c such that a < c < b where
f
(c) = 0
(b)L
AGRANGES
M
EAN
V
ALUE
T
HEOREM
(LMVT) :
Let f(x) be a function of x subject to the followingconditions :
(i)
f(x) is a continuous function of x in the closedinterval of a
x
b .
(ii)
f
(x) exists for every point in the open intervala < x < b .
(iii)
f(a)
f(b). Then there exists at least onepoint x = c such that a < c < b where
f
(c) =
f b f ab a( ) ( )
Geometrically, the slope of the secant line joiningthe curve at x = a & x = b is equal to the slope of the tangent line drawn to the curve at x = c . Notethe following :
(c)A
PPLICATION
O
F
R
OLLES
T
HEOREM
F
OR
I
SOLATING
T
HE
R
EAL
R
OOTS
O
F
A
N
E
QUATION
f(x) = 0Suppose a & b are two real numbers such that ;
(i)
f(x) & its first derivative
f

(x) are continuousfor a
x
b .
(ii)
f(a) & f(b) have opposite signs .
(iii)

f
(x) is different from zero for all values of xbetween a & b .Then there is one & only one real root of theequation f(x) = 0 between a & b .0y
>
x
>
Non
-----
increasingfunction
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