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History of Geometry

History of Geometry

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HISTORY OF GEOMETRY
Euclid's
The Elements of Geometry
(c.300 BCE), was one of themost important early texts on geometry, in which he presentedgeometry in an ideal axiomatic form, which came to be known asEuclidean geometry.In the early 17th century, there were two important developments ingeometry. The first and most important was the creation of analyticgeometry, or geometry with coordinates and equations, by ReneDescartes (1596–1650) and Pierre de Fermat (1601–1665). Thesecond geometric development of this period was the systematicstudy of projective geometry by Girard Desargues (1591–1661).Projective geometry is the study of geometry without measurement, just the study of how points align with each other.Geometry is still feeling the effects of two developments from thenineteenth century. Two of the master geometers of the time wereBernhard Riemann, working primarily with tools from mathematicalanalysis, and introducing the Riemann surface, and Henri Poincaré,the founder of algebraic topology and the geometric theory of dynamical systems.As a consequence of these major changes in the conception of geometry, the concept of 'space' became something rich and varied,and the natural background for theories as different as complexanalysis and classical mechanics. The traditional type of geometrywas recognised as that of homogeneous spaces, those spaces whichhave a sufficient supply of symmetry, so that from point to point theylook just the same
 
Contemporary geometry
Some of the representative leading figures in moderngeometry are Michael Atiyah, Mikhail Gromov, andWilliam Thurston. Geometry now is, in large part, thestudy of 
structures
on manifolds, that have a geometricmeaning in the sense of the principle of covariance thatlies at the root of general relativity theory, intheoretical physics.
Contemporary Euclidean geometry
The study of traditional Euclidean geometry is by no means dead. It isnow typically presented as the geometry of Euclidean spaces of anydimension, and of the Euclidean group of rigid motions. Thefundamental formulae of geometry, such as the Pythagorean theorem,can be presented in this way for a general inner product space.Euclidean geometry has become closely connected withcomputational geometry, computer graphics, discrete geometry, andsome areas of combinatorics. Momentum was given to further work on Euclidean geometry and the Euclidean groups by crystallographyand the work of H. Geometric group theory is an expanding area of the theory of more general discrete groups, drawing on geometricmodels and algebraic techniques.
Algebraic geometry
The field of algebraic geometry is the modern incarnation of theCartesian geometry of co-ordinates.
 
The geometric style which was traditionally called the Italian schoolis now known as birational geometry. Objects from algebraicgeometry are now commonly applied in string theory, as well asdiophantine geometry.Methods of algebraic geometry rely heavily on sheaf theory and other  parts of homological algebra. For practical applications, Gröbne basis theory and real algebraic geometry are major subfields.
Differential geometry
Differential geometry, which in simple terms is thegeometry of curvature, has been of increasingimportance to mathematical physics since thesuggestion that space is not flat space. Contemporarydifferential geometry is
intrinsic
, meaning that space isa manifold and structure is given by a Riemannianmetric, or analogue, locally determining a geometrythat is variable from point to point
.
 Topology and geometry
 The field of topology, which saw massive developmentin the twentieth century, is in a technical sense a typeof transformation geometry, in which transformationsare homeomorphisms. Contemporary geometrictopology and differential topology, and particular

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