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Telangana 1

Telangana 1

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Published by: saurabh 88 on Feb 11, 2010
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is a region of theAndhra Pradeshstate inIndia. It has area of 1,14,840 km
. and itspopulation is 3,06,96,520 according to the 2001 census. The name means "land of Telugu people". Itconsists of theTeluguspeaking parts of the state of Hyderabad. The region lies on theDeccanplateau to the west of theEastern Ghatsrange, and includes the northwestern interior districts of Andhra Pradeshstate. Telangana region has 10 districts.TheyareWarangal,Adilabad,Khammam,Mahabubnagar ,Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar ,Nizamaba d,Medak,and the state capital of Andhra Pradesh,Hyderabad. TheKrishnaandGodavaririvers flow through the region from west to east.On December 9, 2009, the Government of India announced that the process for the formation of Telangana state will be initiated upon introduction and passage of a separation statement by the stateassembly of AP.
However, on December 23, 2009, the Government of India announced that the issue of a new state will be addressed only after a consensus is reached, thus effectively putting the formation of the new state in abeyance.
Merger of Telangana and Andhra
In December 1953, the States Reorganization Commissionwas appointed to prepare for the creation of  states on linguistic lines. The States Reorganization Commission(SRC) was not in favour of an immediate merger of Telangana region withAndhra state,despite the common language between the two.Para 382 of  States Reorganization Commission Report (SRC) said "opinion in Andhra is overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit, public opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself. Important leaders of public opinion in Andhra themselves seem to appreciate that the unification of Telangana with Andhra,though desirable, should be based on a voluntary and willing association of the people and that it isprimarily for the people of Telangana to take a decision about their future". Telanganas had severalconcerns. The region had a less developed economy than Andhra, but with a larger revenue base (mostlybecause it taxed rather than prohibited alcoholic beverages), which Telanganas feared might be divertedfor use in Andhra. They also feared that planned dam projects on the Krishna and Godavari rivers wouldnot benefit Telangana proportionately even though Telanganas controlled the headwaters of the rivers.Telanganas feared too that the people of Andhra who had access to higher education, would have theadvantage in government and educational jobs.
The commission proposed that the Telangana region be constituted as a separate state with a provisionfor unification with Andhra state, after the 1961 general elections, if a resolution could be passed in theTelangana state assembly with two-third majority.Chief Minister of Hyderabad State,Burgula Ramakrishna Raostrongly believedmajority of Telangana people were against the merger .
Prime minister  Jawaharlal Nehru initially ridiculed the idea of merging Telangana with theAndhra State, fearing a “tint of expansionist imperialism” in it. Later, he compared the merger to a matrimonial alliancehaving “provisions for divorce” if the partners in the alliance cannot get on well.
However, following the "Gentlemen's agreement,the central government, established a unifiedAndhra Pradesh on November 1, 1956[2] 
 . The agreement provided reassurances to both parties in terms of power sharing as well as administrative domicile rules and distribution of expenses of various regions.
Separate Telangana state movement
1969 Movement
In the following years after the formation of Andhra Pradesh state, however, Telangana people had anumber of complaints about how the agreements and guarantees were implemented. Discontent with the1956Gentleman's agreement intensified in January 1969 when the guarantees that had been agreed on were supposed to lapse. Student agitation for the continuation of the agreement began at OsmaniaUniversity in Hyderabad and spread to other parts of the region. Government employees and oppositionmembers of the state legislative assembly swiftly threatened "direct action" in support of the students.This movement, also known as Telangana movement, led to widespread violence and deaths of hundredsof people including 360 students.
Although the Congress faced some dissension within its ranks, its leadership stood against additionallinguistic states, which were regarded as "anti-national." As a result, defectors from the Congress, led byM. Chenna Reddy, founded the Telangana People's Association (Telangana Praja Samithi). Despiteelectoral successes, however, some of the new party leaders gave up their agitation in September 1971and, much to the disgust of many separatists, rejoined the safer political haven of the Congress ranks.[3]During the movement Government promised to correct the violation toGentleman's agreement in jobs, budget allocations, educational facilities[4]. Prime Minister,Indira Gandhi was strongly aginst the division of the state but on her recommendation,P. V. Narasimha Raobecame firstChief minister  of Andhra Pradesh from Telangana on September 30, 1971.[5 ][6] [7]
Still some of the extremist leaders who were not the Congress men remained in the cause. The nonCongress men formed the STPS (Samyukta Telangana Praja Samiti) Leader include, Badri Vishal Pitti,Sada Laxmi, Konda Laxman etc. under leadership of Sridhar Reddy, student leader.
In the year 1972, all candidates belonging to STPS under the leadership of M Sridhar Reddy contestedthe assembly elections, however, only Mr Thakkalapalli Purushotham Rao got elected fromWardhannapet constituency of Warangal District and rest were defeated. In 1969, Mr Purushotham Raounveiled Telangana map in the state assembly.
At the end of 1972, when the Supreme Court upheld the
Mulki rules
, Jai Andhra movement startedin Coastal Andhra andRayalaseemaregions protesting the protections mentioned in theGentleman's agreement.[8] P. V. Narasimha Raohad to resign asChief minister of Andhra Pradesh on January 10, 1973.President's rule was declared in the state. Finally, a political settlement was arrived at under the aegis of the Central Government. A
Six-Point Formula
was agreed upon by the leaders of the tworegions to prevent any recurrence of such agitations in future. The `Six-Point Formula' included (1) theabolition of Mulki rules and the Telangana Regional Committee (protections mentioned intheGentleman's agreement) and (2) the establishment of a Central University at Hyderabad to augmenteducational facilities. (3) In regards to jobs, state divided into six zones, within the framework of threeregions, namely,Coastal Andhra,Rayalaseema, and Telangana (Zone V, and Zone VI) with Hyderabad under Zone VI. Each zone should prefer local candidates for state government jobs. However accordingto GOM, the regions were rezoned with Zone I,II,IIICoastal Andhra,Zone IVRayalaseema, Zone V,IV Telangana.
Movement in 1990-2004
The emotions and forces generated by the movement, in 1969, were not strong enough, however, for acontinuing drive for a separate state until 1990s when Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP), promised a separate Telangana state if they came to power.[12]BJP createdJharkhand,ChhattisgarhandUttarkhand states in year 2000 as promised. But the BJP could not create a separate Telangana state because of theopposition from its coalition partner, Telugu Desam Party.[13] These developments brought new life into the separatist Telangana movement by year 2000.Congress party MLAs from the Telangana region, supported a separate Telangana state and formed the Telangana Congress Legislators Forum.
In another development, a new party called Telangana Rashtra Samithi (or TRS) was formed with the single point agenda of creating a separate Telangana state, with Hyderabad as its capital lead byKalvakuntla Chandrasekhar Rao popularly known as KCR.

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