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Photovoltaic Systems Technology SS 2003

Photovoltaic Systems Technology SS 2003

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Published by nawwar
good photovoltaic resource book
good photovoltaic resource book

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: nawwar on Feb 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/02/2012

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Photovoltaic Systems TechnologySS 2003
Universität KasselRationelle Energiewandlung / Franz KiningerWilhelmshöher Alle 7334121 KasselGermanykininger@uni-kassel.dewww.uni-kassel.de/re
 
 
-I-
 
t 0049- 561 804 6201i www.uni-kassel.de/re
Content
1
 
WORLD ENERGY SITUATION 1
 
1.1
 
Introduction 1
 
1.1
 
World Energy Consumption 1
 
1.2
 
Greenhouse Effect 4
 
1.3
 
Reserves and Resources 5
 
1.4
 
Regional Energy Consumption 10
 
1.5
 
Outlook for Energy Situation 13
 
1.6
 
References 14
 
2
 
SOLAR RADIATION 15
 
2.1
 
Introduction 15
 
2.2
 
Solar Radiation outside the Earth’s Atmosphere 17
 
2.3
 
Solar Radiation on the Earth’s Surface 18
 
2.4
 
Greenhouse Effect 24
 
2.5
 
Solar Radiation Measurement 27
 
2.6
 
References 30
 
3
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 31
 
3.1
 
Introduction 31
 
3.2
 
Charge Transport in the Doped Silicon 32
 
3.3
 
Effects of a P-N Junction 33
 
3.4
 
Physical Processes in Solar Cells 35
 
3.4.1
 
Optical absorption 35
 
3.4.2
 
Recombination of charge carriers 35
 
3.4.3
 
Solar cells under incident light 36
 
3.5
 
Theoretical Description of the Solar Cell 37
 
3.6
 
Conditions with Real Solar Cells 41
 
3.6.1
 
Influence of series- and parallel resistance 41
 
3.6.2
 
Sources of losses in solar cells 43
 
3.7
 
Effect of Irradiation 44
 
3.8
 
Effect of Temperature 45
 
3.9
 
From Single Cells to PV Arrays 46
 
3.9.1
 
Parallel connection 46
 
3.9.2
 
Series connection 48
 
3.10
 
References 57
 
4
 
CONVERSION PRINCIPLES IN PV SYSTEMS 58
 
 
 
-II-
 
t 0049- 561 804 6201i www.uni-kassel.de/re
4.1
 
Introduction 58
 
4.2
 
Coupling of PV Generator and Ohmic Load 58
 
4.2.1
 
DC/DC converters 60
 
4.2.2
 
Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) 68
 
4.3
 
Energy Storage Units 70
 
4.3.1
 
Electrochemical processes in the lead-acid batteries 71
 
4.3.2
 
Theoretical description of the lead-acid batteries 73
 
4.3.3
 
Gassing 76
 
4.3.4
 
The battery capacity 79
 
4.3.5
 
Requirements for the solar batteries 80
 
4.3.6
 
From single batteries to battery banks 83
 
4.4
 
Coupling of PV Generator and Battery 86
 
4.4.1
 
Self-regulating PV systems 88
 
4.5
 
Charge Regulators 89
 
4.5.1
 
Basic principles of charge regulators 89
 
4.5.2
 
Switching regulators 90
 
4.5.3
 
Control instruments 94
 
4.6
 
Inverters 94
 
4.6.1
 
General characteristics of PV inverters 94
 
4.6.2
 
Inverter principles 97
 
4.6.3
 
Power quality of inverters 105
 
4.6.4
 
Active quality control in the grid 108
 
4.6.5
 
Safety aspects with grid-connected inverters 109
 
4.7
 
References 111
 
5
 
PRINCIPLES OF PV SYSTEM CONFIGURATION 113
 
5.1
 
Introduction 113
 
5.2
 
Fundamental Structures of PV Systems 113
 
5.2.1
 
PV systems without battery storage 113
 
5.2.2
 
PV systems with battery storage 116
 
5.3
 
Future Trends of PV Systems 124
 
5.4
 
References 124
 
6
 
INTRODUCTION 125
 
6.1
 
Pre-sizing 125
 
6.2
 
Approximation of the System Cost 131
 
6.3
 
System Optimisation 132
 
6.3.1
 
Optimization process by hand 135
 
6.3.2
 
Optimization process by simulation programs 137
 

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