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Matriculation Physics ( Radioactivity )

Matriculation Physics ( Radioactivity )

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Published by ridwan
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Published by: ridwan on Feb 12, 2010
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03/31/2013

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1
PHYSICSCHAPTER 15
 
is defined as the spontaneousis defined as the spontaneousdisintegration of certaindisintegration of certainatomic nuclei accompanied byatomic nuclei accompanied bythe emission of alphathe emission of alphaparticles, beta particles or particles, beta particles or gamma radiation.gamma radiation.
CHAPTER 15: RadioactivityCHAPTER 15: Radioactivity(3 Hours)(3 Hours)
 
PHYSICSCHAPTER 15
2
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
ExplainExplain 
αα
,,
 β  β 
++
,,
 βˉ  βˉ 
andand
γγ
decays.decays.
StateStatedecay law and usedecay law and use
DefineDefineactivity,activity,
 A A
and decay constant,and decay constant,
λ
..
Derive and useDerive and use
DefineDefinehalf-life andhalf-life anduseuse 
Learning Outcome:
    w    w    w .k    m    p       h  .    m    a      t     ri     k .    e      d     u   .    m    y       /     p        h    y      s      i    c     w    w    w .k    m    p       h  .    m    a      t     ri     k .    e      d     u .    m    y       /     p        h    y      s      i    c 
15.1Radioactive decay (2 hours)
 N dd
λ 
=
e N  N 
λ 
=
0
e A A
λ 
=
0
OROR
λ 
2ln
2/1
=
 
PHYSICSCHAPTER 15
3
Definition (refer to section 14.1.3).
The radioactive decay is a
spontaneousspontaneous
reaction thatis
unplannedunplanned
,
cannot be predictedcannot be predicted
and
independentindependent
of 
physical conditionsphysical conditions
(such aspressure, temperature) and
chemical changeschemical changes
.
This reaction is
randomrandom
reaction because the
probabilityprobability
of a
nucleus decayingnucleus decaying
at a given instantis the
samesame
for all the nuclei in the sample.
Radioactive radiations are emitted when an unstablenucleus decays. The radiations are
alpha particles,alpha particles,beta particles and gamma-raysbeta particles and gamma-rays
.
15.1 Radioactive decay

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