Prerequisites here are a physics-basedplant model and an appropriate model pa-rameterisation as well as the parameteri-sation of the necessary controls model.
2 Identification of Software Tools
The analysis of the overall vehicle behav-iour in conjunction with a high level of detail of single components causes unac-ceptable calculation times. Fast calculat-ing models allow a high number of pa-rameter variations in a limited timeframe. Applications for the validation of ECU functionalities in a software in theloop (SiL) or hardware in the loop (HiL)environment have even higher demandson calculation speed up to real-time cap-ability for the latter. Today physics basedmodels replace more and more map-based models for these applications be-cause of their superiority in terms of mapping transient behaviour or causalrelationships between in- and outputs.Increasing calculation power of today’sCPUs allows a fast execution of rather de-tailed engine models .For a flexible simulation of the com-bustion engine in the overall vehicle en- vironment in terms of degree of detail,calculation performance and connectiv-ity a couple of questions concerningmodel depth and choice of simulationtools have to be answered. One possible way of model classification can be done with a level of abstraction. Early stagesof engine development demand a highdegree of abstraction.
assigns amodel type for different vehicle subsys-tems to a degree of abstraction with oneexample of application. The degree of detail can individually be chosen foreach subsystem depending on theproject definition, the available model-ling data resources and the calculationtime constraint. In that way the opti-mum simulation quality and efficiency can be reached. For example the com-bustion engine can be simulated in lessthan real-time using a 0D-gas exchangecalculation combined with a mean- value model-based on an artificial neu-ral network for the in-cylinder process.If the energy and heat managementsimulation is the main scope, a high de-gree of detail can be chosen here – forexample for subsystem specific conceptor parametric studies – at minimisedoverall calculation time.
shows an exemplary segmen-tation into subsystems and the appropri-ate software tool in the chosen tool chainfor an overall vehicle simulation. Thesoftware tools are linked together via the vehicle simulation software VeLoDyn (Ve-hicle Longitudinal Dynamics) based onMatlab/Simulink which serves as integra-tion platform since most of today’s off-the-shelf tools offer this interface. Fur-thermore Matlab/Simulink is the ade-quate software for controls developmentand for compiling hardware-independ-ent code with the real-time workshop.Depending on the application GT- Power or Themos is used for the engineprocess, Dymola/Modelica for energy management, cooling system, powertrainand electric system and AxiSuite or KAT-Sim  for exhaust gas aftertreatment.
3 Engine Modelling
Engine modelling mainly focuses on thetwo following points:– the gas exchange including the turbo/supercharging and EGR system– the combustion process with energy flow analysis and engine out emissionevaluation.Both should be calculated with high ac-curacy for transient operation – ideally inreal-time and three dimensional. Howev-er three-dimensional overall engine mod-elling is still far away from reasonable
Possible degrees of detail exemplary for five vehicle subsystems
Typical segmentation into subsystems for an overall vehicle simulation
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Calculation and Simulation