is the transport of oxygenfrom the outside air to the cells withintissues,and the transport of carbon dioxidein the oppositedirection. This is in contrast to thebiochemicaldefinitionof respiration, which refers to
: themetabolicprocess by which anorganismobtains energyby reactingoxygenwithglucoseto givewater ,carbon dioxideandATP(energy). Although physiologicrespiration is necessary to sustaincellular respirationand thus life in animals, the processes are distinct:cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of theanimal, while physiologic respiration concerns thebulk flowand transport of metabolites between theorganism and the external environment.
•Inunicellular organisms, simplediffusionissufficient for gas exchange: every cell isconstantly bathed in the external environment,with only a short distance for gases to flowacross. In contrast, complex multicellular animals such ashumanshave a much greater distance between the environment and their innermost cells, thus, arespiratory systemisneeded for effective gas exchange. Therespiratory system works in concert with acirculatory systemto carry gases to and from thetissues.