2
replaced the IFFT and FFT in modulation and demodulation of FFT-OFDM system. Due to the overlapping nature of waveletproperties, the wavelet based does not need cyclic preﬁx todeal with delay spreads of the channel. As a result, it hashigher spectral containment than that of Fourier-based OFDM[1].The data
{
d
k
}
is processed as per FFT-OFDM. However, thedifference is that the system does not require CP to be addedto the OFDM symbol, and the system uses inverse discretewavelet transform (IDWT) and discrete wavelet transform(DWT) to replace IFFT and FFT in transmitter and receiver,respectively. The output of the inverse discrete wavelet trans-form (IDWT) can be represented as [5]:
s
(
k
) =
∞
m
=0
∞
n
=0
S
nm
2
m/
2
ψ
(2
mk
−
n
)
(3)where
{
S
nm
}
are the wavelet coefﬁcients and
ψ
(
t
)
is thewavelet function with compressed factor
m
times and shifted
n
times for each subcarrier (number
k
,
0
≤
k
≤
N
−
1
). Thewavelet coefﬁcients are the representation of signals in scaleand position or time. The scale is related to the frequency. Lowscale represents compressed wavelet which means that thesignal is rapidly changing, or the signal is in high frequency.On the other hand, high scale represents stretched waveletwhich means that the signal is slowly changing, or the signalis in low frequency. Thus,
X
m
can be represented to
{
S
nm
}
before it is processed to IDWT. At the receiver side, theprocess is inversed. The output of discrete wavelet transform(DWT) is
S
nm
=
N
−
1
k
=0
s
(
k
)2
m/
2
ψ
(2
mk
−
n
)
(4)
S
nm
can be decoded to
X
m
before the recovery of data toQAM demodulator.An example of a baseband signal is shown in Fig. 2. In thisﬁgure, the top plot is the output signals from QAM modulator.Other plots are the Daubechies’ wavelets OFDM samples indiscrete time that are transmitted after an IDWT block. Theplots are shown for the ﬁrst 100 samples out of 1705 samples.IV. SYSTEM ANALYSIS
A. Fourier-Based OFDM (FFT-OFDM)
The system block diagram in Fig. 1 assumes that there isno frequency offset at the receiver. Thus, the FFT itself actsas match ﬁltering. To determine the data in sub-channel
k
, wematch the transmitted waveform with carrier
i
[4]:
y
(
t
)
,f
i
(
t
)
=
K
−
1
k
=0
d
k
f
k
(
t
)
,f
i
(
t
)
(5)where
y
(
t
)
is the transmitted data via IFFT,
f
k
(
t
)
complexexponentials used in the IFFT operation or
e
j
2
πkm/K
(
K
being the size of FFT),
d
k
the data projected on each carrier,
f
k
(
t
)
,f
i
(
t
)
equals 1 when
k
=
i
and 0 when
k
=
i
.In a typical communication system, data is transmitted overa dispersive channel. The impulse response of a deterministic
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100−4−2024
An input data stack to enter OFDM in parallelSubcarrier index
R e a l ( d a t a )
0 20 40 60 80 100−4−2024
OFDM−symbol samples to be Txed serially for Haar Wavelet OFDM
R e a l ( O F D M s y m b o l )
Time index
0 20 40 60 80 100−4−2024
OFDM−symbol samples to be Txed serially for db8 Wavelet OFDMTime index
R e a l ( O F D M s y m b o l )
0 20 40 60 80 100−4−2024
OFDM−symbol samples to be Txed serially for db16 Wavelet OFDM
R e a l ( O F D M s y m b o l )
Time index
0 20 40 60 80 100−4−2024
OFDM−symbol samples to be Txed serially for db32 Wavelet OFDM
R e a l ( O F D M s y m b o l )
Time index
Fig. 2.
Baseband signals of the Daubechies’ wavelets showing theﬁrst 100 samples in an OFDM transmitter(number of subcarriers:1705). Top: The Modulating Signals from QAM. Second Row(left):Haar or db1 Wavelet OFDM. Second Row(right): db8 WaveletOFDM. Third Row(left): db16 Wavelet OFDM. Third Row(right):db32 Wavelet OFDM.
(and possibly time-varying) channel can be modelled by alinear ﬁlter
h
(
t
)
:
r
(
t
) =
y
(
t
)
∗
h
(
t
) +
n
(
t
)=
K
−
1
k
=0
d
k
f
k
(
t
) +
n
(
t
)
(6)where
f
k
(
t
) =
f
k
(
t
)
∗
h
(
t
)
or
f
k
(
t
)
being the distortedcarriers due to the dispersive channel and n(t) is additive whiteGaussian noise. When matching the transmitted waveformwith carrier
i
, we have
y
(
t
)
,f
i
(
t
)
=
K
−
1
k
=0
d
k
f
k
(
t
)
,f
i
(
t
)
+
n
(
t
)
,f
i
(
t
)
=
K
−
1
k
=0
d
k
ρ
k,
0
(0) +
n
(
t
)
,f
i
(
t
)
=
d
K
ρ
i,i
(0) +
K
−
1
k
=0
k
=
i
d
k
ρ
k,i
(0) +
n
(
t
)
(7)where
d
K
ρ
i,i
(0)
is the recovered data with correlation term
ρ
i,i
(0)
and
n
(
t
)
is uncorrelated Gaussian noise. The inter-ference term
i
(
t
) =
K
−
1
k
=0
,k
=
i
d
k
ρ
k,i
(0)
degrades the systemperformance. It causes the ﬁlter to be distorted and it isno longer orthogonal to one another with correlation terms
ρ
k,i
(0)
. If the channel has no distortion, this term becomes0 and would yield to possibly decode exactly what wastransmitted plus a Gaussian noise term.
B. Wavelet-Based OFDM (DWT-OFDM)
In wavelet-based OFDM, same analysis using match ﬁlter-ing is performed except that the
f
k
(
t
)
and
f
i
(
t
)
are replacedwith
W
k
(
t
)
and
W
i
(
t
)
;
W
k
(
t
)
being the wavelet carrier in
476
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