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Nursing Ethics

Nursing Ethics

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Published by MAHMOOD AHMED
These notes are prepared for Pakistani nurses and is allowed to everyone for copying .some notes are taken from ICN web site for actual references.(author) DEFINITION OF NURSING: The ICN Definition of Nursing • Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a s
These notes are prepared for Pakistani nurses and is allowed to everyone for copying .some notes are taken from ICN web site for actual references.(author) DEFINITION OF NURSING: The ICN Definition of Nursing • Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a s

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Published by: MAHMOOD AHMED on Feb 13, 2010
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These notes are prepared for Pakistani nurses and is allowed to everyone for copying .somenotes are taken from ICN web site for actual references.(author)DEFINITION OF NURSING: The ICN Definition of Nursing 
Nursing
encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families,groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patientand health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles.
 Nursing is a profession in which the nurse applies skills and attitudes in the provision of comfort and care for the health needs of people. It is a dynamic, therapeutic and educative process by which the practitioner provides preventive, curative promotive and rehabilitativehealth services to individuals, families and communities.
According to
MS. Florence Nightingale
(1860).“The act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his / her recovery”.
MS. Virginia Henderson
defines nursing in functional terms (1970).“The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he/she had the recovery strength, will or knowledge and to do this in such away as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible”.
According to ANA, (1980)“Nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual and potential health problem.
In the 20
th
century there are many theoretical definition of nursing developed. Thefollowing are common facts to that entire nursing is: -
Caring for and caring about people.
Has evolved from an unstructured method of caring for the ill through a scientific process,moves from the mystical beliefs to a high tech, high touch era.
Art and science, using scientific knowledge in a human manner, critical thinking skills withcaring behaviors.
Requires balance of promoting client’s, independence and dependence,
Focuses not on illness but rather on the client’s response to illness.
Promotes health and helps clients move to a higher level of wellness.
Assisting a client with a terminal illness to maintain comfort and dignity in the final Stage of life.
Roles and responsibilities of the nurse.
The nurse professional role has a wide variety of components. Some of those are following:1.
HEALTH EDUCATOR 
:Provide health education and information to client and families formally and Informallyabout health and illness and the ways to cope with illness and its consequences.
2.COMMUNICATOR:
Establishing and maintain effective communication skills with clients, families, andsignificant others.Use communication as a tool for interpersonal & trust worthy relationship in such a waythat are most helpful & supportive to the client & familyObtain information’s needed to provide optimum health care (through interview)A nurse evaluates effectiveness of one’s own communication with clients, colleagues, andothers.3.
CARE PROVIDER:
Use the nursing process to formulate and maintain individualized nursing care plans byassessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating.
4. MANAGER:
 
Assess and sets nursing care priorities.Provides clients care (With guidance) utilizing resources and nursing personnel according totheir nursing and educational perpetration and experience.Plan and provide in-service education to develop nursing personal to skills in giving nursingcare.
5. ADVOCATE
Working to support clients and families and speaking up on issues such as safety and accessto services.
6. COUNSELO
Plays a therapeutic role in helping to cope with problems and to identify resources.7.
ROLE AS A PROFESSIONAL:
Is accountable for his or her nursing practice.
Practice within the professional’s ethical and legal standards.
Assure responsibilities for self-development.
Participates in research.
Work within the policies of the employing institution.
Work as a change agent.
8.ETHICAL AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF NURSES.9.As a nurse it is important to have an understanding of :
10.How laws affect on nursing practice.11.Your abilities to practice safe nursing care.12.Your legal boundaries/ standards within which you must function.13.Responsibility to protect clients from harm.
THE LAW
This defines the minimum ethical standards in a given area of practice. For example, deceptiveadvertising is illegal and violators of this law are liable to large fines, to arrest and / loss of goodwill.
TYPE OF LAWS:
 
Nursing practices subject to:-
1.Statutory laws. (Nurse Practice Act)2.Regulatory laws. ( PNC pass Rules & Regulation and administrator laws)3.Common laws. ( Informed Consent, Clients Rights To Refuse treatment)4.Criminal laws. (On Server Offense Imprisonment or Death)5.Civil laws. (Protect Individual)
STATUTORY LAW
Statutory law is enacted by the legislative branch of Government. Nurses are examples of statutory Law, which are designed to protect the public from in-competent practitioners.
COMMON LAW
Each state has its own body of common law related to the delivery of health care within thatstate. These laws should be reviewed by health professional as a basic for accountability, qualityand management within their professional practice. This law assets nurses to work within the boundaries of their role and to advocate for nursing practice when necessary.
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
Administrative law is made by administrative agencies. According to certain statuses,administrative agencies are granted authorities to enact rules and regulations that ill c.: out specificinteraction to the statute.
CLIENT, S RIGHTS
Clients are protected by law (invasion of privacy) against unauthorized release of personalclinical data, such as symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. Nurses, as well as other health care personnel, may be held personally liable for invasion of privacy, should litigation arise from theunauthorized release of client data. Confidential information, however, may be released with theclient’s consent. Information release is mandatory when ordered by a court or when state statutesrequire reporting child abuse, communicable diseases, or other incidents. Nurses have a legal and
 
ethical responsibility to become familiar with their employer’s policies and procedures regarding protection of clients’ information.Medical records are the key written account of such client information as signs andsymptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and responses to treatment. Not only do these records documentcare given to clients, but they also provide effective means of communication among health care personnel. These records contain important data for insurance and other expense claims and areused in court in the event of litigation.Health professionals are becoming more aware of the implications of clients’ rights associety in general becomes more aware of every human being’s basic rights. Although there arestill gaps in the legal process, many states are beginning to grapple with the status of lawsapplicable to clients who are hospitalized. It is essential that nurses be aware of the particular state’s laws and statutes affecting clients and themselves. Nurses as well as physicians areaccountable for their actions, and the threat of civil and criminal prosecution is becoming more prevalent.
The Client Bill of Rights:
1.The client has the right to considerate and respectful care.2.The client has the right to obtain from his or her physician complete current informationconcerning diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in terms the client can be reasonably expectedto understand.3.The client has the right to receive from the physician information necessary to give informedconsent prior to the start of any procedure or treatment. . . . Where medically significantalternatives for care or treatment exist, or when the client requests information concerningmedical alternatives, the client has the right to such information to know the name of the personresponsible for the procedures or treatment.4.The client has the right to refuse treatment to the extent permitted by law and to be informed othe medical consequences of his or her action.5.The client has the right to every consideration of privacy concerning his or her own medicalcare program.6.The client has the right to expect that all communications and records pertaining to his or her care should be treated as confidential.7.The client has the right to expect that within its capacity a hospital must make reasonableresponse to the request of a client for services.8.The client has the right to obtain information as to any relationship of the hospital to other health care and educational institutions in so far as his or her care is concerned [ any professional relationships among individuals, by name, who are treating him or her.9.The client has the right to be advised if the hospital proposes to engage in or perform humanexperimentation affecting his or her care or treatment. A patient has the right to refuse to participate.10.The client has the right to expect reasonable continuity of care.11.The client has the right to examine and receive an explanation of his or her bill regard less of source of payment.12.The client has the right to know what hospital rules and regulations apply to his or her con ductas a client.
NEGLIGENCE:
The doctrine of negligence rests on the duty of every person to exercise due care in his/her conduct toward others from which injury may result. To find liability there must be a duty of careon the part of the nurse and a causal relationship between damage or harm to the client as well as anact or an omission to act by the nurse.Gross negligence is the intentional failure to per form a duty in reckless disregard of theconsequences affecting the client. It is viewed as a gross lack of care to such a level as to beconsidered willful and wanton.Criminal negligence also consists of a duty on the part of the nurse and an act that is the proximate cause of the injury or death of a client. This type of negligence is usually defined bystatute and as such is punishable as a crime. The act being punished would be a flagrant andreckless disregard of the safety of others and/or a willful disregard to the injury liable to follow so

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Tahira Ghaffar added this note
i have gone through this document. it is very well written. i like it . very good effort. it is very precise & full of information. but there is problem to download it
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Seemi Rana added this note
here is I've read a lot about nurses.but still something is missing which is the misbehave of female doctors with the nurses today due to jealousy.now a day v are facing these things a lot.
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