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Analysis of Reliability of Engineering Design

Analysis of Reliability of Engineering Design

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Published by: saravanaeee2004 on Feb 13, 2010
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Analysis Of Reliability Of EngineeringDesign
Reliability is a new concept, barely three decades old and is primarily due tothe complexity, sophistication and automation inherent in moderntechnology. It has been established that the reliability, which is a measure of quality, is an essential element at each stage of the equipmentmanufacturing procedure through design and production to final delivery tothe user.Reliability can be defined in the following ways:1.The reliability of a component (or a system) is the probability that thecomponent (or a system) will not fail for a time t.2.The reliability of a system is called its capacity for failure –freeoperation for a definite period of time under given operatingconditions.3.Reliability is the probability of an item performing its intendedfunction over a given period of time under the operating conditionsencountered. Some important terms:
i. Failure rate (λ)
It is the ratio of total number of failures during the test interval to thetotal test time.λ = f/t
ii. Mean time between failure (m)
It is the reciprocal of the constant failure rate.m = 1/λ = t/f 
iii. Mean time to failure (MTTF)
If we have a life-test information on n items with failure times t
, t
MTTF = 1/n Σ t
iv. Reliability function
Let a fixed number (N) of components be repeatedly tested. There willbe, after a time t, n components, which survive the test and m components,which fail. The Reliability (or probability of survival) expressed as a fraction at any timet, during the test isR (t) = n/N The probability of failure or unreliability at any time t, can be expressed asF (t) = m/NIt is clear that at any time, t,R (t) + F(t) = 1because R (t) & F (t) are mutually exclusive events.
v. Density function, f(t)
 The probability that a random trial yields a value of t within the intervalfrom t
to t
, ist
 ∫ f (t) dtt
then f(t) is the density function for the continuous random variable.
vi. Distribution function, F (t)
 The distribution function, F (t) is the probability that in a random trial,the random variable is not greater than t, thus,
F (t) = ∫ f (t) dt 
F (t) is recognized as unreliability function, when speaking of failures.
vii. Reliability, R (t)
 The reliability is given byR (t) =1-F (t)In integral form, R (t) can be expressed as
R (t) = ∫ f (t) dt 
viii. Hazard Rate, Z (t):
It is also called as instantaneous failure rate, defined as the ratio of density function, f (t) to the reliability function, R (t).Z (t) = f (t)/R (t).1.A shaft on two supports is shown. The distance between the supportsis L. Assume that the axis for the left bore in the housing is thereference axis (which means that the left bore surface is taken as thedatum). Then the position of the shaft axis with respect to the boreaxis is determined by the eccentricities of the bearing outer ring, balls,inner ring and shaft plus the magnitude of a clearance in the bearing(clearance between the balls and the rings after the bearing ismounted on the shaft). The latter, however is neglected here for thesake of simplicity. Assume that the system of balls in a bearing can betreated as a ring, the tolerances of which are equal to those for anindividual ball.

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