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Published by: saravanaeee2004 on Feb 13, 2010
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11/07/2014

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 Design For Manufacturing and Assembly
 Effect of Materials and Manufacturing processes on Design
1.EFFECT OF MATERIAL ANDMANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN DESIGN1. Introduction:
Design is the process of translating a new idea or a market need into thedetailed information from which a product can be manufactured. Each of its stages requires decisions about the materials from which the product isto be made and the process for making it. The number of materialsavailable to the engineer is vast: between 40000 and 80000. At thebeginning the design is fluid and the options are wide; all materials mustbe considered. As the design becomes more focused and takes shape, theselection criteria sharpen and the shortlist of materials, which can satisfythem, narrows. Then more accurate data are required and a different way of analyzing thechoice must be used. In final stages of design, precise data are neededand the search finally comes to only one. The procedure must recognizethe initial choice, the narrow this to a small subset, and provide theprecision and detail on which final design calculations can be based. The choice of material cannot be made independently of the choice of process by which the material to be formed, joined, finished, andotherwise treated. Cost enters, both in the choice of material is processed.Good design alone will not sell a product. Industrial design is one that, if neglected, can also loss the manufacturer his market.So, Engineering materials are evolving faster, so there are wide options,which pave way for new innovations. It is important in the early part of design to examine the full materials, which fulfill the requirements, andsubsequently deciding upon the manufacturing processes. For this, theknowledge of the Effect of material properties and manufacturingprocesses is required.
1.1. Major Phases of Design:
Introduction:
Engineering design work is usually performed on three different levels:1.Development of existing products or designs, i.e.,redesign, by introducing minor modifications in size, shapeor materials to improve performance.2.Adaptation of an existing product or design to operatein new environment or to perform a different function.
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 Design For Manufacturing and Assembly
 Effect of Materials and Manufacturing processes on Design
3.Creation of totally new design that has no precedent. This work is more demanding in experience and creativity of thedesigner.
1.1.1. Major Phases of Design:
Engineering design is usually an iterative process, which involves a seriesof decision-making steps where each decision establishes the frameworkfor the next one. There is no single, universally recognized sequence of steps that leads to a workable design as these depends on nature of theproblem being solved as well as the size and structure of the organization.However, a design usually passes through most of the phases, which areshown in the Fig 1.1.Identification of the problem and evaluating the need in order todefine the objective of the design represent the first phase of thedesign in most cases.2.Functional requirements and operational limitations are directlyrelated to the required characteristics of the product and arespecified as a result of the active phase I.3.System definition, concept formulation, and preliminary layout areusually completed, in this order, before evaluating the operatingloads and determining the form of the different components orstructural members.4.Consulting design codes and collecting information on materialproperties will allow the designer to perform preliminary materialselection, preliminary design calculations, and rough estimation of manufacturing requirements.5.The evaluation phase involves a comparison of the expectedperformance of the design with the performance requirementsestablished in phase 2.Evaluation of the different solution andselection of the optimum alternative can be performed usingdecision-making techniques, modeling techniques, experimentalwork and /or prototypes.6.In some cases, it is not possible to arrive at a design that fulfills allthe requirements and compiles with all the limitations established inphase2. This means that these requirements and compiles with allthe limitations established in phase 2.7.Having arrived at final design, the project then enters the detaileddesign stage where it is converted in to a detailed and finished formfor suitable for use in manufacturing. The preliminary design layout,any available detail drawings, models and prototypes, and access tothe developer of the preliminary design usually form the basis of the detailed design.8.The next step in the detailed design phase is detailing, whichinvolves the creation of detail drawings for every part .All theinformation that is necessary to unambiguously define the partshould be recorded in detailed drawing. The material of the partshould also be selected and specified by reference to standardcodes.
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 Design For Manufacturing and Assembly
 Effect of Materials and Manufacturing processes on Design
Major phases of designConstraintsSafety, LOP Fig 1
3
1. Identification of the problem
Unavailableinformation
2. Functional requirements3. Concept formulationand preliminary layout.4. Preliminary material and processselection.
Informationsufficient toreach feasiblesolution?
5. Evaluate solution withfunctional requirements.
AcceptableDesign?
Detail DesignDetailingMaterials and processesspecified.
DesignChangesnecessary
4. Bill of Materials
 
ManufacturingCustomer 
FilesR&DPatents
Material properties, DesignCodesModeling and simulationPrototypeExpt.Work.SalesMarketingProspective customersRevise Functionalrequirements.Specifications for standarditems.MarketingPurchase andAccounting.
 NoYes No NoYesYesYes No

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