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2 Cumulative Effect of Tol

2 Cumulative Effect of Tol

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Published by: saravanaeee2004 on Feb 13, 2010
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 Design for Manufacture and Assembly
Tolerance Analysis
2 CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF TOLERANCES
All piece parts are eventually used for assembly. The probable lengths of theresulting combinations are the one to be concentrated upon. In large volumeproduction the problem is complicated by the fact the lengths of the assemblymembers are unknown to the designer. They may only know that the lengths of individual parts lie somewhere within the specified tolerances.Variations in a dimension occur despite of keeping production conditions asconstant as possible. The manner in which these variations are distributed within thetolerance therefore becomes important in determining the length of the resultingassembly. In addition, the drawings are done at one location, but the fabrication andassembly take place at far-distant places under conditions unknown to the designer.Nevertheless, it becomes necessary that the designer makes the best estimatepossible so as to find out the probability of assembly variations be. The contactingsurfaces should be flat and free of burrs and other imperfections. Thermal effects mustalso be taken into account. Types of Tolerance Specification:1.Unilateral tolerance2.Bilateral tolerance
Equal
UnequalUnspecified tolerances for the present consideration could be employed as ±0.3. The open tolerance for various dimensions are illustrated in the Table 2.2For ease of calculation, bilateral tolerancing should be used. Unilateral tolerancecan be changed temporarily changed to the bilateral form for the purpose of makingcalculations. Thus a dimension 4.000,+0.000,-0.008 mm would become3.996±0.004mm. Tolerance will be represented as u and will be used to represent thepermissible variation each way from the mean. The other nomenclatures foregoing uare as follows
:
AArea under distribution curvekClass widthf(x)Function of xNNumber of piecesuEngineering toleranceu
n
Natural tolerance or 3σu
a
Natural tolerance for assemblyxDimension
 x
Weighted average of dimension xzNumber of standard deviations between specified dimension x and mean
 x
of normal curveσStandard deviation or root-mean-square errorσ
a
Standard deviation for assemblyσ
t
standard deviation for truncated normal curveσ
2
Variance, Square of standard deviationSummation
x
103
 
 Design for Manufacture and Assembly
Tolerance Analysis
Infinity
 x
a
Mean value
2.1 Arithmetic or Sure-Fit Law
 The length of a simple part is shown in Fig 1. A mean dimension x is given withthe tolerance ´u´ expressed bilaterally. The mean value
 x
a
for an assembly is the sumof means of separate part as given by the Eq 2.1.
 x
a
 
=
 
 x
1
+
 x
2
+ ….......
=
x
……………………………………
(
2.1
)
 The simplest rule for estimating the tolerance u
a
for the assembly is merely toadd the tolerances ´u´ of the individual parts. The results are given in equation 2.2.u
a
 
=
u
1
+ u
2
+ …………..
=
∑u …………………………………….
(
2.2
)
 
Fig 1 Length of simple part expressed with bilateral toleranceExample1: The lengths for the three parts that are placed in end-to-end assembly are shown inFigure 2 determine the probable tolerance u
a
for the assembly by the arithmetic rule.Fig 53 Piece partsSolution:By Eq. (2.2),
u
a
=
u
=0.050+0.075+0.150=0.275 mmEquation (2.2) usually gives a value too large for u
a
. In fact, all the parts couldsimultaneously be at their high limit or all simultaneously at their low limit. Althoughphysically possible, such an event would be of very rare occurrence. In general, someparts will be longer than their mean and sum will be shorter, so that after assembly theresult for u
a
will be less than that indicated by Eq. (2.2).
104
 
 Design for Manufacture and Assembly
Tolerance Analysis
 The inverse problem sometime occurs. Mere assembly tolerance
u
a
would bespecified with piece part tolerances
u
1
,
u
2
…to be determined. The arithmetic rule mayimpose a severe restriction of small tolerances on the individual parts.
2.1.1 Assembly When Some Parts Double Back on Others
Assemblies are sometimes arranged where some of the parts double back on theothers. It can be easily shown that the mean of the resulting assembly is equal to thealgebraic sum of the means of the component parts and the tolerance
Fig 54 Assembly tolerance is unchanged if some of the parts double backon the others. Assembly dimension is 35.56±0.011 .
on the assembly is merely the sum of the tolerances on the components all takenpositively when the arithmetic rule is used.Example 2:Suppose that the three parts of Fig. 54(a) are arranged as in Fig.54(b) and (c). Find thedimensions of the resulting assembly.Solution:In Fig. 54 (b) the parts have lengths that give the largest assembly dimensionand in Fig.54 (c) the lengths give the smallest assembly dimension. It is seen that theassembly dimension, 35.56 mm, is equal to the algebraic sum of the means of theparts. The tolerance
u
a
of 0.011 mm. is the sum of the tolerances on the three partswhen all are considered as positive.
105

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