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Design for Manufacture and Assembly Tolerance Analysis

Design for Manufacture and Assembly Tolerance Analysis

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 Design for Manufacture and AssemblyTolerance Analysis
2.9 Geometric Tolerance:
2.9.1 Conventional Or Coordinate TolerancingSystem:
Coordinate tolerance is a dimensioning system where a part feature islocated (or defined) by means of a rectangular dimension with the giventolerance.
Geometric Tolerancing:
Geometric tolerance of a feature (point, line, axis, surface or mediumplane) specifies the tolerance zone within which the feature is required tobe contained. The geometric tolerance feature provides a precise and brief method of indicating brief geometric requirements on engineering drawings. Thesymbols being internationally been accepted are very useful whenoverseas manufacture is involved.Geometric tolerancing is very useful especially when conventionaldimensioning and drawing methods are inadequate and doesn’t ensurethat parts will assemble satisfactorily after manufacture.
2.10 Basic Definitions
2.10.1. Maximum Material Condition (MMC)
It is that condition of a feature or a part, which contains the maximumamount of material, e.g. minimum hole size or maximum shaft size. Incertain cases its use allows an increase in the specifies tolerance if it isindicated that the tolerance applies to the feature at its MMC.
2. 10.2 Straightness
It is the shortest distance between two points. The tolerance value is thespecified distance between two parallel straight lines.
2.10.3 Datum
A datum feature may be a plane or axis. For practical purposes the planesurface or axis is used for manufacture or inspection.
2.10.4. Flatness
Flatness tolerance controls the deviation of the surface from the trueplane and is the space between the two parallel planes
2.10.5. Roundness
It is the condition where the feature is a continuous curved surface, anypoint on the surface is at a constant distance from the centre or axis. Theroundness tolerance zone is the annular space between two co-planar,concentric circles.
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 Design for Manufacture and AssemblyTolerance Analysis
2.10.6. Cylindricity
It is a combination of parallelism, straightness and roundness, applied tothe surface of a cylinder. The cylindricity tolerance zone is the annularspace between two coaxial cylinders and its value is the radial distancebetween them.
2.10.7. Concentricity
It is the relationship between two cylinders, which have the same axis orcommon centre. Concentricity tolerance is the deviation of the axis fromthe true position. 
2.10.8 Squareness
It is the condition where a line, plane or surface lies at 90 degrees to theanother. It is the space between the two parallel lines or surfaces.
2.10.9. Parallelism
 This is the condition where two lines or surfaces are separated by auniform distance. Parallelism tolerances control the parallelism betweenthe two lines or surfaces and the tolerance zone is the distance betweenthem. 
2.10.10. Angularity
It defines the position between two lines or surfaces which are nor parallelor perpendicular to each other.
2.10.11. Position
 The positional tolerance controls the position between a feature and adatum or from another feature. The tolerance value is the specifieddeviation from the true position.
2.10.12. Symmetry
It is the feature where a feature is divided into identical parts by means of a line or plane. Symmetry tolerances control the area between the parallellines or planes, which are parallel to the datum feature, and there value isthe distance between them.
2.10.13. Circular Runout
It is the permissible variation of position of any point fixed on a surface,which occurs when a part is rotated through 360 degrees about its ownaxis. The resultant indications include errors of other characteristicswithout differentiating them. The combined errors must not exceed thestated tolerance value.
2.10.14. Total Runout
 The difference between simple Runout and total Runout is that in theformer, one measurement is taken during one revolution while in the laterthe measuring instrument is moved along the component during severalrevolutions.
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 Design for Manufacture and AssemblyTolerance Analysis
 
TABLE 1: Symbols of toleranced characteristics
 Type of  Toler
µ
sanceCharacteristics to betolerancedSymbolsFORMStraightnessFlatnessCircularity (Roundness)Profile of any lineProfile of any surfaceORIENTATIONParallelismPerpendicularityAngularityLOCATIONPositionConcentricity andcoaxialitySymmetryRUNOUTSimple runout Total Runout
2.11 Benefits Of GeometricDimensioning And Tolerancing (GD&T)
2.11.1. Improves Communication:
GD&T can provide uniformity in drawing specification andinterpretations, thereby reducing controversy, guesswork andassumptions. Design, production and inspection all in the samelanguage
2.11.2.Provides Better Product Design:
 The use of GD&T can improve your product design by providingdesigners with the tool to “say what they mean” and by following thefunctional dimensioning philosophy.
2.11.3. Increase Production Tolerance:
 There are two ways tolerance are increased through the use of GD&T .First under certain conditions, GD&T provides “bonusor extratolerance for manufacturing. This additional tolerance can reduce theproduction cost significantly. Second, by use of functionaldimensioning, the tolerances the tolerances are assigned to the partbased upon its functional requirements. This often results in a largertolerance for manufacturing. It eliminates the problem that resultswhen designers copy existing tolerances, or assign tight tolerances,because they don’t know how to determine a reasonable tolerance..
 
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