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Universal Dental Gold Alloys

Universal Dental Gold Alloys

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Published by ryu100
dentar tehnique
dentar tehnique

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Published by: ryu100 on Feb 13, 2010
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01/23/2013

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Universal Dental GoldAlloys in NewMetal-Ceramic Systems
 
Jef M. van der Zel*, PhD,MSc**Director Quality Assurance Elephant Dental B.V.Porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns and bridges represent the majority oflab-fabricated prostheses. Where aesthetics and biocompatability aredesired irrespective of cost, the choice is a high-noble, rich-yellow ceramicalloy. Unfortunately platinum and palladium, which are normally added toalloys for strength, also reduce the rich yellow colour so that a gold content inexcess of 84% is usually required in ceramic alloys in order to approach thehighly desired “yellow” colour. The most common high-noble PFM crownfabricated in Canada contains roughly 51% gold content and presents as“steel” in colour or “white” as defined by the industry. The dental industry haslong searched for a more aesthetic solution.Since 1990, the Carrara System (1) has offered one. Using a low-firing temperature veneeringceramic and gold alloys with a lower platinum and palladium content, a deep and rich yellow colourresults. What makes these alloys “universal” is the fact that they can be used for ceramic as well asfull gold restorations as well as inlays and full arch bridges. All applications result in a rich yellow,high-lustre finish. Aesthetic matches for mixed restorations in the same quadrant (ie PFM and full goldcrowns) are simplified. Galvanic reactions to alloys of different compositions are reduced oreliminated. Dentists and patients see what they expect to see in “gold” restorations. Alloy andporcelain inventory in dental laboratories is simplified as the porcelain used for PFMs is also suitablefor feldspathic veneers/inlays and pressable single-unit applications. A review of the development ofalloys over the past 50 years is discussed along with the evolution of the universal alloys.
Introduction
The dental laboratory industry is constantly exposed to a plethora of alloys produced by a number ofmanufacturers. It is not uncommon for a lab to use 6 or more dental alloys for different applications.Inventory accumulates despite the best of intentions, and 6 buttons constantly tie up hundreds ofdollars.The dentist is frequently just as confused with the choice of alloys. A 51% PFM alloy appearsindistinguishable from a non-precious crown except for the “Identalloy” sticker along with it. A 62%gold content full gold crown is a nice yellow colour compared with a 62% gold content porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) alloy that is “white” in colour. When a “yellow” PFM option is offered to the dentist bythe lab, it is often frequently requested thereafter. The aesthetics of a yellow-coloured gold in PFMrestorations is highly sought and appreciated by many dentists although the high cost with high goldcontent sometimes curtails the desire.The quest for a rich-yellow, reasonably priced, ceramic alloy has been the focus of many a metalurgistfor decades. This desire is also connected with the wish to avoid firing porcelain on metal in the
 
posterior chewing surfaces of the mouth, because of the high hardness of porcelain with respect to theopposing natural teeth. A distinction has therefore always been made between crown & bridge alloysderived from carat gold for casting all-metal restorations (full-gold crowns: FGC) and alloys used forveneering with porcelain or PFM.
TABLE 1. Crown & bridge alloys [Non-Ceramic; FGC].
Properties afterHardening TreatmentYear ofMarketIntro-DuctionCommercialRegisteredTrade Nameof the AlloyCompany Composition in wt-%Au Ag Pd Pt Cu Zn
Rest
 MeltingInterval,
o
CVickersHardness, HVYieldStrenght,MPa19551977196119781988Degulor MDegulor NFIVMaingold OGApollo 4Apollo 4CFDeguDentDeguDentHeraeusElephantElephant70.0 13.5 2.0 4.4 8.8 1.2
Ir
 71.0 10.0 2.0 12.9 0.0 4.0
Ir
70.0 13.4 1.0 7.5 7.6 0.5
Ir
 70.0 13.4 2.0 4.5 9.0 1.0
Sn,Ir
68.0 21.4 6.0 1.0 0.0 3.4
Sn,Ir
 900- 9701000-1100930- 990900- 9751000-1070235230295240250620590730650630
In dentistry, the first modern gold alloys used to cast all-metal crowns and bridges were derived from jewelry carat gold alloys using the lost-wax casting technique introduced by Taggart in 1935 (Table 1).The application was successful, as these alloys have been used extensively for “full-gold” crowns,bridges, inlays and telescopic work for decades. In most of Canada, the trend has been to use a“crown and bridge” alloy containing 60-62% gold. An appreciable and distinguishable difference incolour exists between “crown and bridge” alloys having more than a 10% difference in gold contentand the cost per crown is relatively minimal in comparison. Many other alloy manufacturers havesince followed suit by developing “crown and bridge” alloys with similar and varying compositions. Theapplication of these rich-yellow 70% gold alloys to veneering porcelain was less than ideal due to thefact that the high copper content often resulted in greening of porcelain margins and the low solidustemperatures made them susceptible to slumping during porcelain firing. In addition, the thermalexpansion coefficients (CTE) were on average 2.0 µm/m.K too high for the porcelains on the market atthat time.The copper free versions had all the characteristics to become precursors for the universal gold alloysdeveloped later, however the paradigm that zinc in porcelain-veneering alloys should be low or absentdue to its potential to cause bubbling in porcelain made them less than desirable choices.
TABLE 2. Gold-platinum alloys for porcelain veneering.
Properties afterPorcelain Firing Cycle Year ofMarketIntro-DuctionCommercialRegisteredTrade Nameof the AlloyCompany Composition in wt-%Au Ag Pd Pt Zn In Rh RestThermalexpansionCoefficient,µm/m.K(25-500
o
C)MeltingInterval,
o
CVickersHardness, HVYieldStrenght,MPa196719701977199519951995Degudent UHerador HOrion UXBioGoldPlusBioOcclus 4BioHerador N
DeguDentHeraeusElephantElephantDeguDentHeraeus77.3 1.2 8.9 9.8 0.0 1.5 0.0 Sn,Cu,Ir78.5 0.0 7.8 10.0 0.0 3.5 0.0 Ir77.0 1.5 9.2 9.6 0.0 1.5 0.0 Fe,Cu,Ir86.0 0.0 0.0 10.5 1.5 0.2 1.5 Ta,Mn85.8 0.0 0.0 11.0 0.2 1.7 0.7 Ta86.2 0.0 0.0 11.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 Ru,Ta
13.814.113.814.314.414.3
1150-12601145-12551040-11301040-11151050-11301050-1130
 210220225220205205580600520550500500
In the 60’s and 70’s, alloys were developed with as high a gold content as possible, but with palladiumand platinum to add strength for longer span bridges. While these alloys were high-noble in theircontent and their efforts, more than a 7% palladium makes all ceramic gold alloys “white” in colour. Asa consequence, they were expensive yet non-gold in colour. They were, neverthless, a good matchfor the high fusing (900-950
o
C) porcelains available at the time.In 1995, five years after the introduction of the ideal universal gold alloys (to be discussed shortly), anew generation of high-gold alloys was developed for the high-fusing porcelains (Table 2; latter 3alloys). The gold content of these alloys was high enough to keep them a rich yellow colour even withthe addition of platinum for strength. Palladium is noticably absent from these newer alloys, as
 
numerous reports over the past 12 years have shown sensitivity in some patients to this component(5,6). Palladium toxicity has resulted in Switzerland banning its use. Similarly, the German HealthMinistry has been warning dentists since 1993 not to use palladium or copper-containing alloys. Thesenew high-gold, yellow alloys have gained some market share, however they have not been able toregain the market shift which has already taken place to the universal gold alloys. This is primarilybecause the universal alloys allow one alloy to work for both “crown and bridge” as well as porcelainfused-to-metal restorations. The universal alloys also offer the same rich yellow colour but contain only75% gold content rather the the 84%+ gold of these newer alloys. Esthetics can be maximized andcosts minimized (due to lower gold content) with the universal alloys.
Low-melting, high-expansion porcelains
The introduction of universal gold alloys was driven by the development of low-melting, high-expansion veneering porcelains. The melting point or firing temperature of these porcelains had to be50
o
C, and preferably 100
o
C lower than the solidus temperature of the gold alloys, for maintaining theform stability of the metal frame during the firing cycles of the veneering ceramic (2,3).The CTE (thermal expansion coefficient from 25
o
C to 500
o
C) of these new porcelains should be atleast 0.5 µm/m.K lower than that of the gold alloys. This allows the alloy-porcelain combination to cooldown without crack formation of the porcelain due to the faster contracting, highly conductive alloy.However when the porcelain has a CTE that is more than 2.0 µm/m.K higher than that of the alloy,then the faster contracting/cooling will lead to bending forces in the metal and chipping in the outsidelayer of the porcelain. A slow cooling process would be required to avoid this potential problem.To accomodate the porcelain veneering of alloys with a CTE range between 15.8 and 17.0 µm/m.K, astrict and tedious temperature-change control is therefore normally required. In the Carrara porcelaindeveloped by Elephant in NV, such control is acheived by a mixing a specific porcelain composition inwhich leucite (the expansion controlling crystalline compond) is in equilibrium with its surroundingglass matrix. This was ingeniously solved by using principally three functionally different glass frits:1. a high expansion leucite-forming frit
2.
a complementary glass frit in equilibrium with the glass matrix of the first frit
 3.
a low melting glass frit that acts neutral towards the other two frits
 
The firing temperature of the Carrara porcelain is 840-860
o
C and the CTE is 14.7 µm/m.K after normalcooling and 15.3 µm/m.K after slow cooling of the porcelain.Experience has shown that a low stress combination is possible when the difference in thermalexpansion between the alloy and the porcelain up to the softening point, [“the mismatch”] =
∆α
T
, isbetween 0.6-1.7 µm/m.K. This makes a low stress combination with Carrara porcelain possible afternormal cooling with alloys with a CTE as low as 15.8 µm/m.K (
∆α
T
: 1.1 µm/m.K, normal cooling) andafter slow cooling with alloys up to 17.0 µm/m.K(
∆α
T
: 1.7 µm/m.K, slow cooling).

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