posterior chewing surfaces of the mouth, because of the high hardness of porcelain with respect to theopposing natural teeth. A distinction has therefore always been made between crown & bridge alloysderived from carat gold for casting all-metal restorations (full-gold crowns: FGC) and alloys used forveneering with porcelain or PFM.
TABLE 1. Crown & bridge alloys [Non-Ceramic; FGC].
Properties afterHardening TreatmentYear ofMarketIntro-DuctionCommercialRegisteredTrade Nameof the AlloyCompany Composition in wt-%Au Ag Pd Pt Cu Zn
CVickersHardness, HVYieldStrenght,MPa19551977196119781988Degulor MDegulor NFIVMaingold OGApollo 4Apollo 4CFDeguDentDeguDentHeraeusElephantElephant70.0 13.5 2.0 4.4 8.8 1.2
71.0 10.0 2.0 12.9 0.0 4.0
70.0 13.4 1.0 7.5 7.6 0.5
70.0 13.4 2.0 4.5 9.0 1.0
68.0 21.4 6.0 1.0 0.0 3.4
900- 9701000-1100930- 990900- 9751000-1070235230295240250620590730650630
In dentistry, the first modern gold alloys used to cast all-metal crowns and bridges were derived from jewelry carat gold alloys using the lost-wax casting technique introduced by Taggart in 1935 (Table 1).The application was successful, as these alloys have been used extensively for “full-gold” crowns,bridges, inlays and telescopic work for decades. In most of Canada, the trend has been to use a“crown and bridge” alloy containing 60-62% gold. An appreciable and distinguishable difference incolour exists between “crown and bridge” alloys having more than a 10% difference in gold contentand the cost per crown is relatively minimal in comparison. Many other alloy manufacturers havesince followed suit by developing “crown and bridge” alloys with similar and varying compositions. Theapplication of these rich-yellow 70% gold alloys to veneering porcelain was less than ideal due to thefact that the high copper content often resulted in greening of porcelain margins and the low solidustemperatures made them susceptible to slumping during porcelain firing. In addition, the thermalexpansion coefficients (CTE) were on average 2.0 µm/m.K too high for the porcelains on the market atthat time.The copper free versions had all the characteristics to become precursors for the universal gold alloysdeveloped later, however the paradigm that zinc in porcelain-veneering alloys should be low or absentdue to its potential to cause bubbling in porcelain made them less than desirable choices.
TABLE 2. Gold-platinum alloys for porcelain veneering.
Properties afterPorcelain Firing Cycle Year ofMarketIntro-DuctionCommercialRegisteredTrade Nameof the AlloyCompany Composition in wt-%Au Ag Pd Pt Zn In Rh RestThermalexpansionCoefficient,µm/m.K(25-500
CVickersHardness, HVYieldStrenght,MPa196719701977199519951995Degudent UHerador HOrion UXBioGoldPlusBioOcclus 4BioHerador N
DeguDentHeraeusElephantElephantDeguDentHeraeus77.3 1.2 8.9 9.8 0.0 1.5 0.0 Sn,Cu,Ir78.5 0.0 7.8 10.0 0.0 3.5 0.0 Ir77.0 1.5 9.2 9.6 0.0 1.5 0.0 Fe,Cu,Ir86.0 0.0 0.0 10.5 1.5 0.2 1.5 Ta,Mn85.8 0.0 0.0 11.0 0.2 1.7 0.7 Ta86.2 0.0 0.0 11.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 Ru,Ta
In the 60’s and 70’s, alloys were developed with as high a gold content as possible, but with palladiumand platinum to add strength for longer span bridges. While these alloys were high-noble in theircontent and their efforts, more than a 7% palladium makes all ceramic gold alloys “white” in colour. Asa consequence, they were expensive yet non-gold in colour. They were, neverthless, a good matchfor the high fusing (900-950
C) porcelains available at the time.In 1995, five years after the introduction of the ideal universal gold alloys (to be discussed shortly), anew generation of high-gold alloys was developed for the high-fusing porcelains (Table 2; latter 3alloys). The gold content of these alloys was high enough to keep them a rich yellow colour even withthe addition of platinum for strength. Palladium is noticably absent from these newer alloys, as