war is to men as maternity is to women.
mussolini this work comprises of excerpts of publishedresearch mostly from jstor.org
Violence threatens law not in spite but because of the fact that law has its origins in violence.
Walter Benjamin. Critique of Violence.
On identity and nation-making. The Oedipus complex.
And on why an attitude of mourning. At the gates of Eden we mourn:We are looking to return to the gods their gift of the ego and identity.On the gift of the gods, sacrifice and bloodletting. The inverted logic.
There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God,the holy place of the tabernacles of the most High.Psalm 46 v. 4
A controversial theory suggests that patriotism, war, and adherence to the flag are incitements to a disguisedform of sacrifice. Generally, the homicide rate decreases when a nation is involved in a popular war. Althoughthere are other ways to interpret this fact, it is a challenging thought that patriotism might be regarded as "acivil religion of blood sacrifice, which periodically kills its children to keep the group together"
(Marvin and Ingle 1999, p. 315). Robert Kastenbaum. On Sacrifice.Carolyn Marvin and David W. Ingle.Blood Sacrifice and the Nation: Totem Rituals and the American Flag.
Only undertakings that pose a serious risk to group survival have magical force for believers.At the outset the outcome of ritual effort must be genuinely uncertain. Great ritual uncertainty requires the
most potent magic, which is blood. …. Win or lose, the outcome of ritual effort must be clear and definite.
Time and space must be redefined. History begins from this moment; territorial borders are re-created orreaffirmed. Time and space are consecrated anew, as if for the first time. This moment becomes the newbeginning of the group, as World War II was for the generation of Americans now passing from the scene.... from the bodies of group
members. … Blood sacrifice, is the “holiest ritual of the nation
state.” Warfare is
the institution that enacts this holy ritual. What constitutes the nation at any moment is the memory of the
“last successful blood sacrifice that counts for living group members.”
Robert Kastenbaum. On sacrifice.
sacrifice is a form of communication with a deity for similar purposes. The word itself means "to make holy."
…., sacrificial offerings include objects of value and symbolic significance that are given to the gods to earn
their favor. The gifts can take many forms, becoming sacred themselves through ritual consecration. The godsmight be offered the most desirable foods or provided with the finest vessels, carvings, tools, and weapons.Historians, however, have often regarded blood sacrifice as the most powerful way to appease the gods. It was not unusual for societies to engage in both animal and human sacrifice, although the historical trend hasbeen toward a sharp reduction in the latter.Participants in blood sacrifice rituals experience a sense of awe, danger, or exaltation because they are daringto approach the gods who create, sustain, and destroy life. The buildup of tension prior to the blood sacrificegives way to a festive sense of triumph and relief. Morale is strengthened by the ritual killing because thegroup has itself performed the godlike act of destruction and is now capable of renewing its own existence.The underlying philosophical assumption is that life must pass through death.