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Art History-pre history - proto renaissance

Art History-pre history - proto renaissance

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Published by ballew_l

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Published by: ballew_l on Feb 13, 2010
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11/18/2014

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PREHISTORY
 Paleolithic Period 
Provenance—the documented history when something is found (documentation of theorigin of a piece of art)Carbon 14 Dating—using the decay of the Carbon 14 isotope to date and object (theorganic object is incinerated and the carbon is measured—the more the carbon, theyounger) the amount of carbon released when something is burned
Lascaux Cave Paintings, France, 15,000 - 13,000 B.C.
This is the earliest known images painted by man 
. These people lived a nomadic life(at the whim of nature), and this might have been an attempt to gain some king of control or possession over nature. This is revolutionary thinking—a step in thedevelopment of man. It is amazingly sensitive—can tell the difference between all theanimals. It is not as naïve as one could expect. These people are making their ownnatural paints and using reads to brush or blow the paint on the wall. They are trulytrying to create depth and realism in the painting. It was discovered on an estate in1876. It was a naturally sealed cave—the discoveries were in doubt for a long timeafterwards. They have been sealed from the public because they have started todeteriorate now that the hermetic sealing is broken. The elements are causing a slowdegeneration. They are in southern France. There are more paintings in thecrevices of the caves. Archaeologists believe that no people lived in the caves—itwas not painted as decoration.
These paintings were definitely not made for others to see. They seem to be made for a religious purpose.
Seems like there was onlyone artist per generation (dedicated to one honored personage—shaman). Theanimals are painted on top of each other—as if they painted more just when they feltthe need to have more.
Faith is the most common motivator behind early art (trying to control nature because these people were at the mercy of nature). Seem to be made to influence the power of nature—control the hunt.
When humans are depictedin early cave paintings they are not realistic—stick figures (the animals are made to
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look real). This seems to show a lack of self-esteem. The animals are the powerfulcreatures in the world.
Altamira Cave Painting of a Bison, Spain, 15,000 - 13,000 B.C.
This is in Northern Spain. These locations are very close to each other. Some of theoldest artwork discovered in the same region. They are more delicate because theyare painted on smoother walls. The artist is spraying the paint through reeds (like anairbrush). They are thought to be about the same age as the other cave paintings.The artist seems to be motivated by the same thing.
Venus of Willendorf, Austria, 28,000 - 23,000 B.C.
 Austria is not that far from Spain and France also.
She is fettish size—she is small and portable (about 3” tall), it is alsoassociated with religion or good luck. It implies that she is a precious objectthat the tribe would carry with them.
There was no Venus in this time—it is a purposeful misnomer (she wouldprobably be a goddess of beauty, love, and fertility of the Paleolithic period)
Willendorf is the place she was found.
She looks healthy or pregnant already (birthing parts are accented).
She barely has arms, face or feet.
She is sculpted out of stone with stone. There is no metal at this time. Onewould need a softer type of rock and a harder, sharper rock. They have madrock seems fleshy. It shows a sensitive and intelligent side to Paleolithic man.
She is a sculpture-in-the-round. This is sculpted from all sides. She is theoldest known example of sculpture-in-the-round.
She is an example of an ancient belief in The Great Goddess. She representsearth, fertility, and regeneration. She can also be violent (fertility in war anddeath). Every ancient culture before writing and civilization seems to have
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worshiped a Great Goddess. The female deity was above any male god (if they even had a male god). They were matriarchal. With cultures that learn towrite, the shift from matriarchy to patriarchy happens with the development of writing.
She is not the only Paleolithic Great Goddess found.
 Mesolithic Period 
Marching Warriors, (ritual dance?), Spain, 7000 - 4000 B.C.
This is the middle period between the oldest period and the newer oldestperiod.
This is a transitional period of human development. They are moving from anomadic lifestyle to a better lifestyle in settlements.
These people are gaining more skill in their artwork because they are gainingmore time to learn the skills.
There is greater importance in the portrayal of the human figure. They arebecoming a little more significant and sensitive. These figures are moresubstantial than the tick figures of the Paleolithic period.
There seems to be a greater awareness of humanity’s importance.
 Neolithic Period 
Stonehenge, Wiltshire, England, c. 2000 B.C.
No one knows the purpose of Stonehenge. There is only speculation.
Stonehenge is speculated to be a way to tell time (an astronomical clock thatmarks the seasons). This is the most popular theory.
The creators of Stonehenge are called the New Farmers. This is because theyhave newly discovered the skill of farming. This could be a planting calendar because the ability to get the best out of a harvest is very important.
It used to be a complete circle of trilothons (the two posts and a lintel). Insidethe circle was a horseshoe shape of trilothons.
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Pinkamena Diane Pie added this note
Hi! I have no idea if you are in Mrs. Costa's Art History class right now, but you take really good notes. Please keep posting them!!!
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