Literature Review 1.Reactive Dyes1.1General Description of Reactive Dyes
The reactive dyes were the first dyes, which form covalent bonds between thedye ion or molecule and the nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atom in the substrate. This wayan improvement in the dyeing resistance appears compared to the classical methods,the breaking rate of carbon-nucleophile newly formed bonds is of about 10
fromtheir formation rate.The idea of synthesizing dyes able to form covalent bonds with the substrate isvery old, but the few products firstly obtained had very complicated applicationprocedures and lead to the fiber degradation. Di- and monochlorotriazine reactive dyeswere the first reactive dyes for cellulosic fibers (Rattee and Stephen, 1954); they wereintroduced commercially in 1956, respectively 1957. The molecule of a reactive dye has a characteristic structural form containing areactive group, a chromophore, a linking group between the two, and a solubilizinggroup.
where S is the water-solubilizing group;C is the chromophore (dye), denoted also by
;L is the bridge link;R is the reactive group.