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Yule's k Final_No Name

Yule's k Final_No Name

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Published by Pranjal Gore

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Published by: Pranjal Gore on Feb 14, 2010
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05/27/2010

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 Yule’s Characteristic- K 
 
Abstract
Yule’s characteristic K (1944) is usedas a stylistic parameter. It is stated that Yule’s K is independent of size of sample. This research paper is an attempt toexamine the statement.
Introduction
Word distribution is a typical typeof distribution wherein the form of thedistribution changes with change insample size.Word distributions belong to theclass of distributions of ”multiplehappenings or repeated events." Itgives us the frequency distribution of frequencies. That is the variable
 x 
,defined as number of times a wordoccurs, itself is a frequency.Hence comparison of the worksof two authors and so also comparisonof the works of the same authorbecomes very difficult. Hencesomething which characterises theword distribution and yet isindependent of size of sample isnecessary.This type of characteristic wasprovided by Yule (1944).It is termed as Yule'sCharacteristic K.According to Yule theCharacteristic characterises the worddistribution and is independent of sizeof sample.He also says that, the conclusionabout the independence of 
and sizeof sample is purely theoretical and thepractical student will not be thoroughlyconvinced unless the Characteristicstands the test of actual trait.
Methodology
For different sample sizes wellspread over the text, we computedvalues of Characteristic proposed by Yule (1944).For this study we have selectedthe novel “Tess Of D'Urbervillies" of famous English author Thomas Hardy.  The novel under study isdivided into twenty parts on the basisof number of words. It was decided totake different samples of sizes 500
;
700
;
900
; : : : ;
2900 words. There arethirteen different sizes of samples.From each of twenty parts onesample of each size was taken byfollowing sampling procedure.
i)
From the start (first word) of each of twenty parts a sample of 500words is taken. Thus twenty samples of size 500 are obtained.
ii)
The next sample of 700 words isobtained from (351
st
 )
word of each part.That is first 350 words are not taken insecond sample. Thus twenty samples,of size 700 are obtained.
iii)
 The same procedure iscontinued till each part is exhausted,that is till less than 100 wordsremained in each part. This proceduregave rise to thirteen samples odifferent sizes from each of twentyparts.Thus 13
*
20 = 260 samples of different sizes are collected.
Statistical Analysis
A variable
 X 
is defined as
=
 x 
: number of times a wordoccurs.
x
= Number of words occurring xtimes.Xf 
x
 
= Total number of words used inthe sample.If,S
1
= ∑ x f 
x
S
2
= ∑ x
2
x
 Yule's Characteristic is defined as,
= 10
4
(
S
2
 /S
12
-1/S
12
) The data is analysed by using KarlPearson’s coefficient of correlation &graphs.
Application
 
A bivariate coefficient of correlation was obtained betweensample size and Yule’s CharacteristicK. The variables are defined as,
=
 x:
Sample sizeand
 x 
= 500, 700, 900, . . . ,2900.
=
 y:
Yule's Characteristic K. Then, the following results areobtained 
 xy 
 
= − 0
.
238206
 
which shows that the two variablesare certainly not independent of eachother.This result is putting a questionmark on the result obtained by Yule,that the Characteristic K isindependent of size of sample.Further the result shows that thetwo variables are negativelycorrelated. That is as there is anincrease in the sample size the valueof the Characteristic K decreases.Graphs G-1 and G-2 reveal a verypeculier Characteristic.
 
G-1 is a graph plotted for Yule’s against twenty samples of one size.Each graphical line represents onesample size. Thus for sample sizes 500to 1900 there are six different lineseasily distinguishable or showingenough dispersion among them. That is for different sample sizesranging from 500 to 1900 Yule’s K isnot constant and shows quitedispersed values.Ellegard,(1962), stated that, thatsample containing at least 2000 wordsis necessary for an accuratecalculation of Yule's K. Hence furtheran attempt was made to find outcoefficient of correlation between Yule's K and sample size above 2000,which gave the following results,
 
 xy 
 
=
 zero
which shows that Yule's K is notlinearly dependent on sample of sizeabove 2000 words.G-2 is the graph of the sametype for sample sizes ranging from2100 to 2900 shows very littledispersion in K. The five lines are noteasily distinguishable. Also the valuesof K have come down or decreasedwith increased sample size. Whichconforms with the result of negativecorrelation.
 
We may say that for increased samplesizes Yule’s K is constant. Rather if thesample size is greater than 2000, then Yule’s K may be independent of size of sample.
Conclusion
i
 )
 Yule's K may not be independent of sample size.ii)
 
 Yule's K may remain constant forsamples above 2000 words.
Bibliography:

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