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Characterization of Technological Processes

Characterization of Technological Processes

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introduction to material characterization, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy. Optical spectroscopy and characterization techniques
introduction to material characterization, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy. Optical spectroscopy and characterization techniques

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Published by: Project Symphony Collection on Feb 14, 2010
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Characterization of technological processes
Alberto Tibaldi20 dicembre 2009
 
Indice
1 Optical microscopy 6
1.1 An introduction to geometrical optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.1.1 Compound microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.1.2 Diraction limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.1.3 Structure of an optical microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.1.4 Darkeld microscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.1.5 Confocal microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2 Electron microscopy 12
2.1 SEM : Scanning Electron Microscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.1.1 Electron gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.1.2 Electromagnetic lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.1.3 Detectors and their use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.1.4 Products of the electronic interactions . . . . . . . . . 142.1.5 Experimental parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.1.6 X-ray analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.2 TEM : Transmission Electron Microscopes . . . . . . . . . . . 202.2.1 Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.3 Electron-Beam lithography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.4 Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3 Scanning Probe Microscopy 25
3.1 Scanning Tunnel Microscopy (STM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.2 Atomic Force Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.3 Scanning Near-field optical microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.3.1 SPM Lithography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4 Optical spectroscopy 30
4.1 Reflectance and Transmittance spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . 304.1.1 Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.2 Interferometric Spectrometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
 
4.2.1 Reflectance and Transmittance spectroscopy . . . . . . 33
5 Characterization techniques 35
5.1 Auger Electron Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355.1.1 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375.2 Xray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . 385.2.1 XPS equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395.3 Secondary Ion Mass spectroscopy (SIMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . 395.3.1 Sputtering process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405.3.2 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425.4 Rutherford BackScattering and Elastic Recoil Detection Anal-ysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435.4.1 Channelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.4.2 Elastic recoil detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.5 X-ray diraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.5.2 X-ray absorption and diraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.5.3 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.5.4 Congurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.5.5 XRD spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.6 LEED/RHEED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485.6.1 LEED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.6.2 RHEED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.6.3 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.7 EXAFS/SEXAFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505.7.1 EXAFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505.7.2 SEXAFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525.7.3 Equipment / spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

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