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Core Objective

Core Objective

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Published by: sanunai on Feb 15, 2010
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02/15/2010

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2009
ALAN Y. CABALUNAPRODUCTION AND OPERATIONMANAGEMENT7/18/2009
Product & Processlayout
 
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Product & Process layout July 18, 2009
Layout
 Refers to the configuration of Departments, works centers, and equipment, with particular emphasis on the movement of work (customer and materials through the system. Decisionsin anyone of the design areas are usually have the impact towards the others; thus bothlayout and location decisions affect capacity. Conversely, effort to increase capacity mayinvolve modification in layout and changes In the location. More over there are layoutimplications anytime a new location is established, or product or services are introduced or change.
As in the other areas system design, layout decisions are important for three basicreasons
:1.They acquire substantial investment of money and effort
2.
They involve long term commitments of money and effort difficult to over come
3.
They have significant impact on cost and efficiency of operations
The need for layout decisions
The need for layout decision arises both in the process in designing new facilitiesand in redesigning existing facilities. In the latter instance, the most common reasonsfor designing of layouts includes:a.Inefficient operation (high cost)b.Accident or safety hazardsc.Changes in design of the product and servicesd.The introductions of new Product and servicese.Changes in the volume of output or mix of outputsf.Changes in Method of equipmentg.Changes in the environmental or other legal requirementsh.Morale problems (lack of face to face contact)The three (4) basic layout designs
1.
Product layout (sequential) used for intermittent processing
2.
Process layout (functional) used repetitive processing, repetitive or continuous
 
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Product & Process layout July 18, 2009
3.U-shape layout4.Fixed line layout
Product layouts (flow-shop layout)
are most conducive to repetitive processingand it’s used to achieve a smooth and rapid flow of large volumes of goods or customers through a system. This is made possible to a highly standardized goodsand services that allow standardized, continual process.Main Advantage of Product layout
A high rate of output
Low unit cost due to high volume; the high cost specialized equipment is spread allover many units
Labor specialization reduces training cost and time and results in a wide span of supervision
Low material handling cost per unit; material handling is simplified because unitsfollowing the same sequence of operations.
A high utilization of labor equipment
Routing and scheduling are established in the initial design of the system; they do notrequire much attention once the system is operating.
Accounting, purchasing and inventory control are fairly usedMain Disadvantage of Product layout
The intensive division of labor usually creates dull, repetitive jobs that provides littleopportunity for advancement for advancement and may lead to morale problems,and to repetitive stress injuries.
Poorly skilled workers and exhibit little interest in maintaining or in the quality of output
The system is fairly inflexible in response to changes in volume of output or changesin the product
The system is highly susceptible to shutdowns caused by equipment breakdowns or excessive absenteeism
Preventive maintenance, the capacity of quick repairs and spare parts inventory arenecessary expenses

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