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teori-22

teori-22

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Published by: yasinunlu on Feb 15, 2010
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11/14/2012

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 GMDHE\BM M\MÀDM\EOHM @ÔQCODĹGGmdhĽ|bm eŞdcbdc|e ochcoeudc bcuhmom `cdcledckcg xcfdegcdc|eo lc|xm|ma chedbc{eoc uñocdeg edmqc xcbcd {mĞdĽg qc `ôqcodeg `c|cgdc|e
GmdhĽ|bm eŞdcbdc|e ochcoeudc xcfdegc m|z chco bmgeomdm|$ xcbcd {mĞdĽg qc`ôqcodeg `c|cgdc|eoe gm|ŞĽdmbmdĽhĽ|/
M" @cocd Gs|mddm| :E/ Xm|eadc| &m% GmdhĽ|bm eŞdcbe7
bmddm|hmo qc.qcum geŞedc|hco ndsŞmo le|eb uôgdc|eo$ lcdde le| mohm$ {cqeuc hcĞeŞegdeĞeoe `c|cgxe|co fm|cgcxeoe$
 &l% @ôhôbdô uôg7
Xnydmb fm|cgcxeo$ gnosbs {mlex ongxmdm|dm lcde|dcoco |ejex umhm c{ocg gĽdmqszdm| lnusokm umyĽdhĽĞĽ uôgô$
&k% ÀmdĽŞbm gmx {muĽ{Ľ7
ebmdmxàĽ qcum ucxgede xcb{edke{e xm|maĽohmo `m|moxe chedbeŞndmo mg{mbĽo gmdhĽ|mledckcĞe ô{x uôg {ĽoĽ| hcĞc|e edc mg{mb ôzc|eohc eŞm|cxde mzmbeàmdĽŞbm uôg hcĞc|e m|m{Ľohmge m|exbcxeg n|moĽ$
 &h% Hcocu gmx {muĽ{Ľ7
gmdhĽ|bm bmgeomdm|Ľ qcum le| gmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|Ľ ôzc|eohc{xmxeg um hm heombeg hcocudc|e umybmg eàeo gsddmoĽdmo uôg edc gmdhĽ|bm bmgeom{Ľ qcumgmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|Ľ ôzc|eohc eŞm|cxde mzmbe àmdĽŞbm uôgô m|m{Ľohmge m|exbcxeg n|moĽ$
 &c% [xmxeg hcocu7
gmdhĽ|bm bmgeomdm|ĽoĽo qcum le| gmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|ĽoĽo ñokcbsmucoc chedey$ su`so le| {xmxeg hcocu gmx {muĽ{Ľ edc àm|yĽdbĽŞ mzmbe àmdĽŞbm uôgôocbm|sz lĽ|mgĽdhĽĞĽ$ hmfm {no|m hm lmf{c gnos uôgôo gmdhĽ|Ľdm|mg$ fm{m| `ñ|ôy`ñ|bcheĞeoe xc{yex cxbcg eàeo xcg|m| bsmucoc chedheĞe hcocue$
 &a% Heombeg hcocu7
gmdhĽ|bm bmgeom{ĽoĽo$ heombeg hmq|moĽŞĽ màĽ{Ľohmo$ hôz`ôoàmdĽŞĽy àmdĽŞbmhĽĞĽoĽ gnox|nd cxbcg ôzc|c$ ndm{Ľ lôxôo gnoae`ô|m{unodm|Ľohm$ su`sole| heombeg hcocu gmx {muĽ{Ľ edc àm|yĽdbĽŞ mzmbe àmdĽŞbm uôgô mdxĽohm àmdĽŞxĽ|ĽdhĽĞĽ$gmdhĽ|bm bmgeom{ĽoĽo eŞdcqeoe hnĞ|s le| Şcgedhc umyxĽĞĽoĽ gnox|nd cxbcg eàeo heombeghmq|moĽŞĽoĽo fc{mydmohĽĞĽ hcocue$
 &`% XmŞĽuĽkĽ7
bmgeomoĽo$ ô{xôohc um hm eàeohc$ gmdhĽ|Ľdmkmg geŞedc|eo qc.qcumcŞumdm|Ľo xmŞĽohĽĞĽ ym|àm{ĽoĽ
&f% GmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|Ľ:
GmdhĽ|bm bmgeom{Ľom bnoxc chedbcbeŞ ndsy$ uôgôoxsxsdbm{Ľom ebgìo {mĞdmumo$ bmgeom edc uôg m|m{Ľom qcum uôgôo gcohe ôzc|eocuc|dcŞxe|edco qcum uôgôo mu|Ľdbmz le| ym|àm{Ľ ndbm{Ľ mbmàdmomo qc yeum{mum mu|Ľndm|mg m|z chedco mg{mb qcum xcàfezmx edc {mymodm| qc lsodm|Ľo mg{mbdm|ĽoĽ$
&Ľ%Zeoke|dc|$ fmdmxdm| qc gmuĽŞdm|:
GmdhĽ|bm mbmkĽudm$ gmdhĽ|bm bmgeom{Ľ qcumgmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|dm|ĽoĽo le| ym|àm{Ľ ndm|mg xm{m|ĽbdmoĽy ebmd chedco$ zeoke|dc|$ fmdmxdm| qc gmuĽŞdm|Ľ
&j% Qeoà qcum G|co:
Ôzc|eohc gmdhĽ|bm xc|xelmxĽohmo lmŞgm uô|ôxbc qchñohô|bc xc|xelmxdm|Ľ lsdsomo qc gmdhĽ|hĽĞĽ uôgdc|e àng xm|madĽ fm|cgcx cxxe|bcgmledeucxe lsdsomo gmdhĽ|bm bmgeocdc|eoc qeoà qcum g|co hcoe|/Gñy|ôdô Qeoàdc|$&xcg ge|eŞ$àeax ge|eŞ%Yn|xmd qeoàdc|$Gno{nd g|codc|$UmyĽ qeoàdc|e&Gsdc qeoàdc|%$Bnled qeoàdc|$Gmldnds qeoàdc|$Ñzcd qeoàdc|e/eamhc chc|/
EE/ Bcgmoeg xcfdegcdc|c gm|ŞĽ gn|sbm := Hco`c{ezdegxco gmuomgdmomo |e{gdc| 
Bmgeomdm|$ lôxôo omgdeuc$ bnoxmj qc hcbnoxmj eŞdcbdc|eoeo fc| mŞmbm{Ľohm$ño`ñ|ôdclede| mg{mb m|Ľzmdm|Ľ qc xmdebmx cd gexmlĽom su`so ndm|mg umyĽdmo hcocudc| 
 
{Ľ|m{Ľohm hm hmfed ndbmg ôzc|c$ fezbcxxc qc fezbcx hĽŞĽ egco$Bmgeomdm|$ mg{mbdm|Ľ qclmĞdmoxĽdm|Ľ xmŞĽbm$ bnoxmj$ hcbnoxmj qc bmgeomdm|dm ed`ede fc|fmo`e heĞc| cudcbdc|hchcq|edbcuc$ hôŞbcuc qcum gnox|nd{ôz fm|cgcxdc|c co`cd ndmkmg Şcgedhc ucxc|de gm|m|dĽdĽg bsfmamzm chedckcg Şcgedhc xm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ qc ebmd chedbcdehe|/ Ls mbmàdm$ebmdìxàĽ qcum ucxgede xcb{edke{e su`so ndmo hnĞ|sdmbm uñoxcbdc|eoe gsddmobmdĽhĽ|/
< GĽdmqsz |mudm| qc |mudĽ unddm| ôzc|eohc àmdĽŞmo bmgeomdm| 
Bmgeomdm|$ gĽdmqsz |mudm| qcum |mudĽ unddm| ôzc|eohc fc|fmo`e le| cxgeudc |muhmoàĽgbmuĽ ñodcuco xc|xelmxdm|dm xcàfez chedbcdehe|/ Ls xô| xc|xelmxdm|m |mĞbco$ fmdm |muhmoàĽgbm qcum |mu um hm fm|cgcxde mg{mb m|Ľzm{Ľ |e{ge qm|{m$ cgeybmodm|Ľo$ mg{mbĽo umhm uôgôo hôŞbc{eoe qcum bmgeomoĽo hcq|edbc{eoe ñodcuco xc|xelmxdm| gnobmdĽhĽ|/
; Bcgmoeg hmumoĽb
Bmgeomdm|$ su`so ndhsĞsohm mxbn{ac|eg amgxñ|dc|eo qc eo{modm|Ľo su`sdmhĽĞĽgsqqcxdc|eo cxgedc|e `c|cgxeĞe Şcgedhc heggmxc mdĽom|mg$ gmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|dm|Ľ qclsodm|Ľo mg{mbĽ$ gsddmoĽb mdxĽohm qc hc su`so e{c gsddmoĽb hĽŞĽohm$ ño`ñ|ôdco bnoxmjqc àmdĽŞbm gnŞsddm|Ľ mdxĽohm qc lôxôo ed`ede gnoae`ô|m{unodm|hm$ bm|sz gmdhĽgdm|Ľuôgdc|c hmumomledckcg gmym{exchc ndbmdĽhĽ|dm|/ Ls Şm|x omgdeuc$ bnoxmj qc hcbnoxmj{Ľ|m{Ľohm hm gm|ŞĽdmobmdĽhĽ|/Bmgeomdm| qc gmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|dm|Ľ$ mbmàdmomo gsddmoĽbdm|ĽoĽ `ñz ñoôohcxsxm|mg$ un|sdbm qc mŞĽobmhmo edc|e `cdco m|Ľzmdm|Ľ ñodcuckcg Şcgedhc xm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽqc ebmd chedbcdehe|dc|/GsddmoĽdmo bmdzcbc$ mbmàdmomo àmdĽŞbm n|xmbĽom `ñ|c$ ñzcddegdc gn|nzuno$mŞĽobm$ hm|lc$ mŞĽ|Ľ {ĽkmgdĽg$ un|sdbm$ gĽ|Ľd`modĽg qc umŞdmobm `ele amgxñ|dc| heggmxcmdĽom|mg {càedbcdehe|/Bmgeomdm| qc gmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|dm|Ľ$ {xmxeg hcocudc|hc mŞĽ|Ľ uôgc$ gmdĽkĽ le| ŞcgedlnzsgdsĞs qcum umyĽ{md le| gs{s| bcuhmom `cdbcg{ezeo hmumomkmg Şcgedhcxm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ qc ebmd chedbcdehe|dc|/ HmumoĽb fc{mydmbmdm|Ľohm ucxc|de le| `ôqcodeghôzcueoe `m|moxe cxbcg eàeo {càedco {xmxeg hcocu gmx{muĽ{Ľ hcĞc|e fc{mlm gmxĽdbmdĽhĽ|/@cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg ls gmx{muĽ mŞmĞĽhmge hcĞc|dc|c {mfeyxe|:&m% Bmoscd àmdĽŞxĽ|Ľdmo bmgeomdm| qc gmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|dm|Ľ: =$3$&l% HeĞc| bmgeomdm|: =$<3/Bmgeomdm| heombeg hcocu gmx{muĽ{Ľ edc àm|yĽdbĽŞ mzmbe àmdĽŞbm uôgô gsddmoĽdm|mgumyĽdmo heombeg hcocudc|hco$ le| m|Ľzm bcuhmom `cdbchco$ `càckcg Şcgedhcxm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ qc ebmd chedbcdehe|/ Ls heombeg hcocu gmx{muĽ{Ľ ucxc|de le| `ôqcodeghôzcueoe `m|moxe cxbcg mbmkĽudm {càede|: `cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg$ ls gmx{muĽ =$=―c cŞexxe|/@cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg$ ls hcocudc| qc|edco mobm fĽzdm|Ľohm umyĽdĽ|/ şmucx bmgeomoĽogsbmohm hcq|c{e lcdde {muĽhm cŞzmbmodĽ fm|cgcxc ebgìo qc|eun|{m$ hcocudc| condsb{sz gnŞsddm| mdxĽohm$ `cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg ed`ede fm|cgcxdc|e le|dcŞxe|c|cgumyĽdbmdĽhĽ|/
8 Gm{omg$ xmbls|$ heŞde àm|g$ fmdmx qc zeoke|dc| 
Gm{omg$ xmbls| qc heŞde àm|gdm|$ gcohedc|eoc xmgĽdmkmg fmdmx qcum zeoke|dc|eolnusxs edc n|moxĽdĽ le| àmym {mfey ndbmdĽhĽ|/Xmbls| qc heŞde àm|gdm|$ xcàfez chedhegdc|e fmdmx qc zeoke|dc|eo `cqŞcbcg{ezeo{m|Ľdmledckcgdc|e Şcgedhc xm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ$ ebmd chedbcde qc xmgĽdbmdĽhĽ|dm|/HnĞ|shmo uôgô gmdhĽ|bmg qcum xmŞĽbmg eàeo gsddmoĽdmo fmdmxdm|$ sàdm|Ľ hĽŞĽohmfc|fmo`e le| cg lmĞĽ eàc|bcbcdehe|/ Lsosodm le|degxc$ xm{m|Ľb `c|cĞe gsddmoĽbefxeumàdm|Ľom `ñ|c hôzcode le| Şcgedhc xmhed chedbc{e hôŞôoôdco su`sdmbmdm|hm fmdmxcgdcbc lmĞdm|Ľom ezeo qc|edclede|/FmdmxĽo lôxôoô qc sàdm|Ľ$ ucxc|de le| `ôqcodeg hôzcue {mĞdmumkmg Şcgedhc {càedbeŞle| àmdĽŞbm gmx{muĽ{Ľom {mfey ndbmdĽhĽ|/ @cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg ls gmx {muĽ 3―xe|/GmdhĽ|bm zeoke|dc|e$ ucxc|de le| `ôqcodeg hôzcue {mĞdmumkmg Şcgedhc {càedbeŞ le| àmdĽŞbm gmx{muĽ{Ľom {mfey ndbmdĽhĽ|/ @cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg ls gmx{muĽ 8―xô|/Ucxc|de le| àmdĽŞbm gmx{muĽ{Ľom sdmŞĽdhĽĞĽoĽ hnĞ|sdmbmg eàeo$ ebmdìxàĽ qcum ucxgedexcb{edke{e$ hnĞ|shmo gmdhĽ|bm mbmàdĽ ndm|mg gsddmoĽdmo fc| le| fmdmx qc zeoke| qc fmdmxxeye qc fmdmx sàdm|Ľ eàeo su`so hcocudc|e umybmdĽ qcum umyxĽ|bmdĽhĽ|/
GmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|dm|Ľ qc lsodm|Ľo mg{mbdm|Ľ
GmdhĽ|bm mg{c{sm|dm|Ľ edc lsodm|Ľo mg{mbdm|Ľ$ qc|edco le| su`sdmbm eàeo lcde|dcocoàmdĽŞbm gnŞsddm|Ľohm lcde|xedheĞe `ele ñbô| lcgdcoxe{eoc su`so ndmo lcdde {muĽhm eŞdcxbchño`ôdc|e eàeo un|sdbm qc umŞdmobm {ô|càdc|eoc `ñ|c ñdàôdcohe|edbcdehe|dc|/
 
Mu|Ľkm:&m% Xcd"fmdmx.fmdmx"fmdmx sks gnbleom{unodm|ĽoĽo àmdĽŞbm gmx {muĽ{Ľ ucxc|de le| `ôqcodeg hôzcue {mĞdmumkmg Şcgedhc {càedbcde7 `cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg ls gmx{muĽ 3―ccŞexxe|/ Fmdmxdm|$ sà gĽ{Ľbdm|Ľ hĽŞĽohm fc|fmo`e le| cgdcoxe lmĞĽ efxeqm cxbcbcdehe|/&l% GmuomgdĽ lmgdmdĽ zeoke|dc| gsddmoĽdhĽĞĽohm$ lsodm| gĽ{m lmgdmdĽ xeyxc ndbmdĽhĽ|/Zeoke|dc|eo àmdĽŞbm gmx {muĽ{Ľ ucxc|de le| `ôqcodeg hôzcue {mĞdmumkmg Şcgedhc {càedbcde7`cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg ls gmx {muĽ 8―c cŞexxe|$&k% Hngsbm fmdmx qcum {mymodm|Ľo àmdĽŞbm gmx{muĽ{Ľ bmdzcbcuc$ ebmdìxuñoxcbeoc$ ñdàôdc|eoc qc gsddmoĽbm lmĞdĽhĽ|/ Ls gmx{muĽ ucxc|de le| `ôqcodeg hôzcue{mĞdmumkmg Şcgedhc {càedbcdehe|7 `cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg ls gmx {muĽ$ gsddmoĽdmobmdzcbcoeo àng eue gmdexc ndbm{Ľ qc ebmdìx uñoxcbeoeo gsddmoĽb mbmkĽom su`sondbm{Ľ gnŞsdsudm$ 0―uc cŞexxe|/ Mg{e fmdhc$ gmx{muĽ$ `cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg$ cŞhcĞc| le| `ôqcodeg hôzcueoe {mĞdmbmg eàeo hmfm uôg{cg {càedbcdehe|/ Hngsbm fmdmxdm| qc{mymodm|hm$ fc|fmo`e le| hôĞôb$ sà{sz {mymodm| fm|eà ndbmg ôzc|c {mymosàdm|Ľohmgedc| hĽŞĽohm cg lmĞdm|Ľ qcum lmĞdmoxĽdm| ndbmbmdĽhĽ|$&h% Le| {mymoĽ ndsŞxs|mo qc {mymodm le|degxc gsddmoĽdmo lôxôo bcxmdeg mg{mbdm| ucxc|de le| `ôqcodeg hôzcue {mĞdmumkmg Şcgedhc {càedbeŞ le| àmdĽŞbm gmx{muĽ{Ľom {mfeyndbmdĽhĽ|7 `cocd le| gs|md ndm|mg ls gmx{muĽ 8―c cŞexxe|$&c% Àng lmkmgdĽ le| {mymoĽo mzmbe àmdĽŞbm uôgô7 co zmuĽa lmkmĞĽo àmdĽŞbmgmx{muĽ{Ľ$ lmkmg {muĽ{Ľ qc {mymo gnoae`ô|m{unosom lmĞdĽ le| mzmdxbm amgxñ|ô c{m{mdĽom|mg lcde|dcoe|$&a% Ucxc|de le| àmdĽŞbm gmx {muĽ{Ľom sdmŞĽdhĽĞĽoĽ hnĞ|sdmbmg eàeo$ ebmdìxàĽ qcumucxgede xcb{edke{e$ &m%$ &l%$ &k% qc &h% ŞĽgdm|Ľohm lcde|xedco fc| le| mg{mb eàeo su`sohcocudc|e umybmdĽ qcum umyxĽ|bmdĽhĽ|/
1 Fm|cgcxdc|eo gsbmohm{Ľ
Fm|cgcxdc|c gsbmohm chco xc|xelmxdm|$ ôzc|eoc xmgĽdhĽgdm|Ľ bmgeomdm|Ľ `ôqcodehs|sbhm xsxmkmg Şcgedhc ammdeucx `ñ{xc|bcdehe|/&m% Bmgeomdm|$ mg{mbdm|ĽoĽo fm|cgcx lôuôgdôgdc|e lcde|xedco {ĽoĽ|dm| eàc|e{eohcgmdmkmg Şcgedhc xm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ qc ebmd chedbcde qcum lsom uñocdeg xc|xelmxdm|dm xcàfezchedbcdehe|/ Su`so ndhsĞsohm$ ls xc|xelmxdm| àmdĽŞbmhmo ñokc le| sum|Ľ {eoumdeqc|edbcdehe|/&l% Le|hco amzdm {mlex qcum |mum bnoxc chedbeŞ ndmo bmgeomdm|$ le| àm|yĽŞbm |e{gendsŞxs|mkmg Şcgedhc muoĽ bcgìohm cŞ zmbmodĽ ndm|mg bmocq|m chedcledeun|{m$ ls xô| bmgeomdm| ls |e{gdc|eo ñodcobc{eoe {mĞdmumkmg {e{xcbdc|eo xmgĽdbm{Ľom ebgìo qc|ckcgŞcgedhc xm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ qc ebmd chedbcdehe|/&k% Bmgeomdm|$ `ôkôo gĽ{bco qcum xmbmbco gc{edbc{e fmdeohc qcum nyc|mxñ| bmgeomuĽ hs|hs|hsĞsohm hmfe$ uôgdc|eo xcfdegcde le| Şcgedhc {ô|ôgdcobcuckcĞe qcum{c|lc{x qc lcgdcobcheg le| Şcgedhc hôŞbcuckcĞe Şcgedhc xm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ qc ebmdchedbcdehe|/&h% On|bmd àmdĽŞbm gnŞsddm|Ľohm$ eŞdcqdc|e ls Şcgedhc àmdĽŞbm{ĽoĽ `c|cgxe|cobmgeomdm| fm|eà ndbmg ôzc|c$ uôgô {mhckc {ô|xôobcde a|co edc eohe|bcg bôbgôondbmbmdĽhĽ|/&c% Xsxsks xc|xelmxdm| uôgdc|eo umodĽŞdĽgdm hôŞô|ôdbc{eoe ñodcuckcg Şcgedhcxm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ qc ebmd chedbcdehe|dc|/
0 XmŞĽbm {Ľ|m{Ľohm uôgdc|eo fm|cgcxdc|e
Bmgeomdm|Ľo àmdĽŞbm gnosbs$ muoĽ zmbmohm bmocq|m fmdeohc ndmledckcg geŞe$cgeybmo qcum heĞc| bmgeomdm|dm le| xcfdegc ndsŞxs|bm{Ľ bôbgôo ndm{Ľ àm|yĽŞbmdm|Ľñodcbcg eàeo$ fm|cgcxde ym|àmdm|Ľo fm|cgcx unddm|ĽoĽ co `coeŞ màĽhmo `ñ|cledckcgŞcgedhc uc|dcŞxe|edbcdehe|/Uôgô uñodcohe|edco bmgeomdm|$ uôgôo$ qm|{m xmŞĽuĽkĽoĽo qcum hco`c mĞĽ|dĽĞĽoĽofm|cgcxeohco hndmuĽ geŞedc|eo um|mdmobm{ĽoĽ ñodcuckcg Şcgedhc xm{m|ĽbdmobmdĽ qc ebmdchedbcdehe|/
6 [mlex eoeŞ bmfmddc|eoc fezbcx qc|co bmgeomdm| 6/= XmŞĽuĽkĽoĽo fm|cgcxdc|e
[mlex eoeŞ bmfmddc|eoc {c|qe{ umymo bmgeomdm|Ľo xmŞĽuĽkĽdm|ĽoĽo fm|cgcxdc|e$ eoeŞbmfmddc|eoc hnĞ|s fm|cgcxdc|eohc qc eoeŞ bmfmddc|eohc egco |ejex le| Şcgedhcuñodcohe|edbcdehe|/ Bmgm{ {e{xcbdc|e hc |ejex gĽdmqszdmbm ndm|mg gmlsd chede|/
6/< XmŞĽuĽkĽum c|eŞeb

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