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Identification of Ground Water Recharge

Identification of Ground Water Recharge



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Published by AsresP
A research done for identification of Recharge and Discharge zones using a GIS and Remote sensing approach.
A research done for identification of Recharge and Discharge zones using a GIS and Remote sensing approach.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: AsresP on Feb 15, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Research Proposal for Hydro science and EngineeringAugust 2009
Groundwater is basically a renewable resource, but the volume of water actually in storage may vary greatly from place to place depending onclimate, regional hydrogeology and rate of groundwater used for agriculture,industries and domestic purposes. From a practical stand point groundwater may not be renewable in terms of a human activities like contamination,extensive usage of groundwater and elimination of recharge areas.In modern water resource development and hydrogeological study, GIS andremote sensing are playing a significant role. Using remote sensing for hydrological investigations has got many advantages; one of these is itstendency to generate information in spatial and temporal domain which thengoes to analysis, predication and validation respectively. It also providesmultisensoral, multispectral and multitemporal data. GIS technology issuitable alternative for providing an efficient management of large andcomplex data base.The Ethiopian water resource is still not well studied and even the areaswhich are potentially known did not come into practice. These may be dueto economic problems since water resource development requires largeamount of money and well qualified professionals. Out of 70 million peopleliving in the country only 34% get clean water which is mostly from surfacewater bodies (
ministry water resource
) but in areas where surface water resource is scarce or is in a limited amount, groundwater resources can beused as the best alternative. But, before going to the development stage thesubsurface water potential has to be studied in order to get good informationand to avoid over exploitation of the resource. Identifying recharge anddischarge zones give us basic ideas where there is high potential for groundwater in order to locate sites for boreholes, wells and for identifyingartificial recharge zones. Despite the fact that the country has been goingthrough series of drought periods and the population increment is atalarming rate, still we didn’t give sufficient attention to the resource at handwhich is mainly the result of lack of skilled professionals and budgetconstraint.This study deals with identifying recharge and discharge zones using GISand Remote sensing technique focusing on the Tigray region which have been affected by series of drought seasons. Specifically this study concernsabout an area located about 34km east of Mekelle town covering an area of 
142.814 Km
. The area has got a very limited surface water resource andmost of the streams are ephemeral (seasonal).Identifying the recharge and discharge zones in the area helps to determinethe groundwater potential of the area in order to locate sites for wells, boreholes and for selection of artificial recharge zones for irrigation purpose.
The core objective of this study is to identify and map the recharge anddischarge zones using the primary and secondary data on the geology andhydrology and hydrogeology of the area.To full fill the above main objectives we have to consider a number of specific objectives.The specific objectives are:- To prepare a detailed geological, land use, soil, Water level map andhydrogeological maps of the study area.-To determine the hydraulic gradient and water level of the catchment-To characterize the rock units in the area with respect to their groundwater holding and transmitting capacity.-To identify geological structure such as faults, joints, dikes, solutioncavities etc that may control the groundwater flow pattern in the area.-To determine groundwater development in the area and the respectivedischarge capacity of springs, hand dug well and shallow wells.-To identify the groundwater flow direction-To prepare a well documented data on the geology and hydrogeology of the area.

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