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Lab Values

Lab Values

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Published by sylwiasajna
Nclex notes
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Published by: sylwiasajna on Feb 15, 2010
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Decide What the Question is Dealing With:Which part of the Nursing Process: Assessment; Analysis; Planning; Implementation or Evaluation? Next, Decide the Order of PriorityINITIAL or FIRST - NURSING PROCESS – assessment? Priority ABC if answers are not Nursing processBEST- DISCRIMINATE out of few correct answersMOST IMPORTANT ABC’s - MASLOW’S hierarchy of needs or REAL problem vs potential probMOST CONCERNED – there is a complication3 Implementations one assessment – maybe assessment2 assessment and 2 implementations verify what the questions asks for First you must decide what part of the nursing process the question is connected with:ANALYSIS--is the process of identifying potential and actual health problems. Most identify pertinentassessment information and assimilate it into the nursing diagnosis. Prioritize the needs that have beenidentified during analysis.Some common words that are associated with ANALYSIS questions:diagnose; contrast; compare; analyze; order; prioritize; define; classify; catagorize; synthesize; sort;arrange;ASSESSMENT--consists of a collection of data. Baseline information for pre and post procedures isincluded. Also included the recognition of pertinent signs and symptoms of health problems both present and potential. Verification of data and confirmation of findings are also included. Assess asituation before doing an intervention.Some common words that are associated with ASSESSMENT questions:observe; gather; collect; differentiate; assess; recognize; detect; distinguish; identify; display; indicate;describe;PLANNING--Involves formulating goals and outcomes. It also involves various members of the healthcare team and the patient's family. All outcome criteria must be able to be evaluated with a specifictime frame. Be sure to establish priorities and modify according to question.Some common words that are associated with PLANNING questions:rearrange; reconstruct; determine; outcomes; formulate; include; expected; designate; plan; generate;short/long term goal; develop;IMPLEMENTATION--Addresses the actual/direct care of a patient. Direct care entails pre, intra and postoperative management, preforming procedures, treatments, activities of daily living. Also includesthe coordination of care and referral on discharge. It involves documentation and therapeutic responseto intervention and patient teaching for health promotion and helping the patient maintain proper health.Some common words that are associated with IMPLEMENTATION questions:document; explain; give; inform; administer; implement; encourage; advise; provide; perform;EVALUATION--Determines if the interventions were effective. Were goals met? Was the caredelivered properly? Are modification plans needed. Addresses the effectiveness of patient teaching andunderstands and determines in proper care was offered. Evaluation can involve documentation,reporting issues, evaluates care given and determine the appropriateness of delegating to others. Mostsignificantly, it finds out the response of the patient to care and the extent to which the goals we met.Some common words that are associated with EVALUATION questions:monitor; expand; evaluate; synthesize; determine; consider; question; repeat; outcomes; demonstrate;
reestablish;After determining what part of the nursing process the question is concerned with, next focus your attention on determining the category of priority:Safe and effective care environmentis always first. Patient safety is related to the proper preparationand delivery of nursing techniques and procedures as part of the nursing practice. It relates to everyaspect of the delivery of care.Physiologic integrityis the ability to provide competent care Information that may be described astraditionally medical- surgical and pediatric nursing falls into this category. Specific questions in thisarea can be related to many direct-care aspects of nursing practice. The importance of this area ishighlighted because it is one in which planning, implementation and evaluation of care needs caneasily be identified and tested. Physiologic integrity is always a slight lower priority than safety unlessit involves airway, breathing and circulation. "ABC's" always comes first!Psychosocial integritytests the knowledge about a patients response to a disease or disorder. Anunderstanding of stress, anxiety and ways to cope are essential. This is a lower priority the physiological integrity.Health maintenancedeals with health promotion, health teaching, disease prevention and assessment of risk factors for health problems. Normal growth and development is a major theme in this category.This however, is a low priority.In Summary, when choosing the right answer for you NCLEX exam question1) ask yourself, "what part of the nursing process is this question dealing with: analysis, assessment, planning, implantation or evaluation? and2) Remember to prioritize your choices: safety always being first, 2)physiological integrity unless thereis ABC3) psychosocial integrity and health maintenance always has the lowest priority when
choosing ananswer.Other tidbits: Avoid choices with the answers "all" "always" "never" or "none". Nothing is ever a definite in Science.Look for answers that are different. If three answers say the same thing but in different words, choosethe answer that is different. When given choices that are pharmacologically based or non pharmacologically based, choose the non pharmacological intervention. It is more often then not, the correct answer. 4 impl. answers one says wash hands its prob right.
Complete Blood Count (CBC) )
 Normal ResultWBC
4.5-10.5 K/UL
0.6-4.1 K /UL
(0.0-1.8 K/UL)
(2.0-7.8 K/UL)
(4.04-5.48 M/UL)
(12.2-16.2 g/dL)
(27.0-31.2 pG/cell)
(31.8-35.4 g/dL)
(145-450 K /uL)
 Coumadin and Warfarin have higher times .
NameNormal Result
INR (0.9-1.4
)CHEMISTRYBasic & Comprehensive Metabolic Panels.
NameNormal Result
(10.0-26.0 mg/dl)
(0.6-1.4 mg/dl)
(70.0-100.0 mg/dl)
(8.8-10.4 mg/dl)
(135.0-145.0 mg/dl)
(3.5-5.0 mg/dl)
(94.0-112.0 MEQ/L)
(21.0-32.0 MEQ/L)
(8.0-36.0 RATIO)
(4.0-34.0 RATIO)
(3.5-5.0 G/DL)

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