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Genus Citrobacter

Genus Citrobacter

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Published by Al Jay T Mejos
The Citrobacter genus is classified under the family Enterobacteriaceae. They typically utilize
citrate as their sole carbon source. They are Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, facultative anaerobic and
motile bacilli employing peritrichous flagella for locomotion. They do not have oxidase but have catalase
and are methyl red positive. They produce a double positive result in the TSI biochemical test due to the
production of acids and gas from the fermentation of glucose and other carbohydrates. They are
frequently isolated from urine, blood, fecal samples and cerebrospinal fluid and have been found in the
urinary tract causing urinary tract infections and human nose and are believed to be natural commensal
organisms in the human digestive tract. They are most related to the Salmonella and Escherichia genus
groups. Species in the genus have been referred to by numerous names such as Bacterium freundii (Braak,
1928), “Citrobacter freundii” (Werkman and Gillen, 1932), Escherichia freundii, Colobactrum freundii,
Paracolobactrum freundii, Salmonella ballerup, Salmonella hormaechei, the Ballerup group, the
Bethesda group, and the Bethesda-Ballerup group. Only through genetic analyses did the Judicial
Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology identified eleven species
included in the group and these genomospecies are Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter
amalonaticus, Citrobacter farmeri, Citrobacter youngae, Citrobacter braakii, Citrobacter werkmanii,
Citrobacter sedlakii (Brenner et al., 1993), Citrobacter rodentium (Schauer et al., 1995), Citrobacter
gillenii and Citrobacter murliniae (Brenner et al., 1999). The assignment of binomial nomenclature to the
genomospecies number is ordered (i.e. species 1 to species 11 corresponding to C. freundii to C.
murliniae) as in the list below.
The Citrobacter genus is classified under the family Enterobacteriaceae. They typically utilize
citrate as their sole carbon source. They are Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, facultative anaerobic and
motile bacilli employing peritrichous flagella for locomotion. They do not have oxidase but have catalase
and are methyl red positive. They produce a double positive result in the TSI biochemical test due to the
production of acids and gas from the fermentation of glucose and other carbohydrates. They are
frequently isolated from urine, blood, fecal samples and cerebrospinal fluid and have been found in the
urinary tract causing urinary tract infections and human nose and are believed to be natural commensal
organisms in the human digestive tract. They are most related to the Salmonella and Escherichia genus
groups. Species in the genus have been referred to by numerous names such as Bacterium freundii (Braak,
1928), “Citrobacter freundii” (Werkman and Gillen, 1932), Escherichia freundii, Colobactrum freundii,
Paracolobactrum freundii, Salmonella ballerup, Salmonella hormaechei, the Ballerup group, the
Bethesda group, and the Bethesda-Ballerup group. Only through genetic analyses did the Judicial
Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology identified eleven species
included in the group and these genomospecies are Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter
amalonaticus, Citrobacter farmeri, Citrobacter youngae, Citrobacter braakii, Citrobacter werkmanii,
Citrobacter sedlakii (Brenner et al., 1993), Citrobacter rodentium (Schauer et al., 1995), Citrobacter
gillenii and Citrobacter murliniae (Brenner et al., 1999). The assignment of binomial nomenclature to the
genomospecies number is ordered (i.e. species 1 to species 11 corresponding to C. freundii to C.
murliniae) as in the list below.

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Published by: Al Jay T Mejos on Feb 15, 2010
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02/17/2014

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Mejos, Al Jay T. Bio 120 Synthesis Paper
Citrobacter
 
The
Citrobacter 
genus is classified under the family Enterobacteriaceae. They typically utilizecitrate as their sole carbon source. They are Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, facultative anaerobic andmotile bacilli employing peritrichous flagella for locomotion. They do not have oxidase but have catalaseand are methyl red positive. They produce a double positive result in the TSI biochemical test due to theproduction of acids and gas from the fermentation of glucose and other carbohydrates. They arefrequently isolated from urine, blood, fecal samples and cerebrospinal fluid and have been found in theurinary tract causing urinary tract infections and human nose and are believed to be natural commensalorganisms in the human digestive tract. They are most related to the
Salmonella
and
 Escherichia
genusgroups. Species in the genus have been referred to by numerous names such as
 Bacterium freundii
 (Braak,1928),
Citrobacter freundii
” (Werkman and Gillen, 1932),
 Escherichia freundii
,
Colobactrum freundii
,
Paracolobactrum freundii
,
Salmonella ballerup
,
Salmonella hormaechei
, the Ballerup group, theBethesda group, and the Bethesda-Ballerup group.Only through genetic analyses did theJudicialCommission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology identifiedeleven speciesincluded in the groupand these genomospecies are
Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter amalonaticus, Citrobacter farmeri, Citrobacter youngae, Citrobacter braakii, Citrobacter werkmanii,Citrobacter sedlakii
(Brenner et al., 1993
), Citrobacter rodentium
(Schauer et al., 1995)
 , Citrobacter gillenii
and
Citrobacter murliniae
(Brenner et al., 1999). The assignment of binomial nomenclature to thegenomospecies number is ordered (i.e. species 1 to species 11 corresponding to
C. freundii
to
C.murliniae
) as in the list below.
C. freundii
The type species of the genus is
C. freundii
. It is regarded as an opportunistic pathogen but hasbeen found to have relatively rare cases involving neonatal infections documented so far (Kaufman &Fairchild, 2004). It produces abundant amounts of Hydrogen sulfide in Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) agar butdoes not produce indole (Sedlak, 1973). It is a rather big group compared to others and is divided into
 
seven biotypes (Brenner et al., 1999). They have been observed in some hospitals to have the mostnumber of infection cases among the members of the genus (Samonis, et al. 2008). Moreover, recentstudies have shown that
C. freundii
infects and replicates in the human brain microvascular endothelialcells (Badger et al., 1999).
C. koseri
Like
C. freundii
,
C. koseri
is also being regarded as an opportunistic pathogen. It accounts formost of the medical cases involving
Citrobacter 
species in human diseases such as meningitis andneonatal infections (Kaufman & Fairchild, 2004). Unlike
C. freundii
it does not produce Hydrogen sulfidein TSI but instead it is most differentiated from other
Citrobacter 
species due to its capability to produceacids from adonitol and D-arabitol. The species was also once referred to using different names such as
Colobactrum freundii
,
Paracolobactrum
 
 freundii
and
Colobactrum
 
diversus
. It is not a normal inhabitantof the maternal urinary tract though also sometimes found; as such it was found to be the cause of chorioamnionitis, maternal UTI and is highly involved in neonate infection affecting the central nervoussystem and lodging in the cerebrospinal fluid in most cases and even sepsis after premature birth(Kaufman & Fairchild, 2004).
C. amalonaticus
Once named
 Levinea malonatica
,
C. amalonaticus
is distinguished from others in the genus by itsability to utilize citrate but not malonate, incapacity of Hydrogen sulfide production in TSI, indoleproduction and ability to grow in KCN.
C. farmeri
Named after John Farmer III (Brenner at al., 1999), it is identified by its ability to produce indole.Also, it has the ability to produce indole, arginine dehydrolase and ornithine decarboxylase. It is capableof producing acids from certain sugars such as
α
-methyl-D-glucoside, melibiose, raffinose, and sucrose. Itdigests and utilize benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, malitol, D-melibiose, 1-
O
-methyl-
α
-galactoside,palatinose, protocatechuate, D-raffinose, and sucrose as sole carbon sources but incapable of utilizing
m-
coumarate, dulcitol and malonate. It is also able to, while sometimes delayed, utilize citrate.
 
C. youngae
Named after Viola Young (Brenner at al., 1999), it is identified through being negative in indoleand ornithine decarboxylase. It is positive, sometimes delayed, for citrate and arginine dihydrolase. Itutilizes dulcitol, 3-phenylpropionate, and L-sorbose, but not gentisate, 3-hydroxybenzoate, malonate, D-melibiose, 1-
O
-methyl-
α
-galactoside, 3-
O
methyl- D-glucose, or tricarballylate as sole carbon sources.
C. braakii
Named after Hendrik Braak (Brenner at al., 1999), it has two biotypes differentiated in theirabilities to utilize 4-aminobutyrate, lactose and lactulose as sole carbon sources. The species is capable of utilizing
m
-coumarate, 1-
O
-methyl-
α
-galactoside, 3-phenylpropionate, and L-tyrosine (delayed), but notL-sorbose as sole carbon sources. It is also adentified by variable indole production, ornithinedecarboxylase, arginine dehydrolase, and positive, sometimes delayed, in citrate utilization
C. werkmanii
 Named after Chester Werkman by Brenner (Brenner at al., 1999), it has citrate and argininedehydrolase but does not produce indole and has no ornithine decarboxylase. As its carbon source itutilizes
m
-coumarate, D-lyxose, malonate, 3-phenylpropionate, L-sorbose and Dtartrate, but not dulcitol,4-hydroxybenzoate, Dmelibiose and 1-
O
-methyl-
α
-galactoside.
C. sedlakii
Named after Jiri Sedlak (Brenner et al., 1993), it uses it utilizes benzoate, dulcitol, 4-hydroxybenzoate,
myo
-inositol, lactulose, malonate, 1-
O
-methyl-
α
-galactoside and protocatechuate as itssole carbon sources but not 5-ketogluconate or L-sorbose. It also produces acid from dulcitol andmelibiose but does not utilize sucrose. Similar to C. braakii, it is positive for arginine dehydrolase,ornithine decarboxylase and indole production and citrate (sometimes delayed).
C. rodentium
It is the one among
Citrobacter 
species found to have infected animals and man so far, another is
C. freundii
(Deng et al., 2003; Hartland et al. 2000) but it was maintained by Luperchio and Schauer(2001) to be have only been isolated from mice and was found to be the cause of transmissible murine

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