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Ethical Dilemma

Ethical Dilemma

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Published by jeric25
i hope, a little bit help for you
i hope, a little bit help for you

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Published by: jeric25 on Feb 16, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Ethical Dilemma/Issues in the Cyberworld
"[To] do this to the right person, to the right extent, at the right time,with the right motive, and in the right way, that is not for everyone nor is it easy;wherefore goodness is both rare and laudable and noble."(Aristotle, Ethics II.9)Ethical dilemma is a complex situation that will often involve an apparent mentalconflict betweenmoral imperatives,in which to obey one would result in transgressinganother. This is also called an ethical paradox since inmoral philosophy, paradox playsa central role in ethics debates. For instance, an ethical admonition to "love thy neighbor as thy self" is not always just in contrast with, but sometimes in contradiction to anarmed neighbor actively trying to rape you: if he or she succeeds, you will not be able tolove him or her. But to preemptively attack them or restrain them is not usuallyunderstood as loving. This is one of the classic examples of anethical decisionclashingor conflicting with an organismic decision, one that would be made only from theperspective of animal survival: an animal is thought to act only in its immediateperceived bodily self-interests when faced withbodily harm, and to have limited ability toperceive alternatives - seefight or flight....However, human beings have complex social relationships that can't be ignored:If one has anethical relationshipwith the neighbor trying to kill you, then, usually, their desire to kill you would likely be the result of mental illnesson their part, stories told tothem by others, e.g. their daughter claims you raped her. Such conflicts might be settledby some other path that has strong social support. Societies formedcriminal justice systems (some argue alsoethical traditionsandreligions) to defuse just such deep conflicts. Such systems always impose trained judges who are presumed to have anethical relationship and also a clear obligation to all who come before them.
Reframing "problems" as "dilemmas"...
Problems might be defined as those recurring and frustrating “glitches” and“snafus” which impede smooth organizational functioning. They also hinder the processof achieving personal and professional as well as organizational goals.Additionally, each alternative in a dilemma possesses inherent drawbacks thatthe other alternative avoids. Returning to the fictitious husband, telling the truth will likelylead to hurt feelings and estrangement, certainly not conducive to marital happiness.Yet, telling a lie is an affront to the vow of being "true...all the days of my life." Adilemma, then, requires organizational leaders to deal with the conflicts of values at theheart of conflicts if organizational leaders are to solve organizational problems. Invokingthe medical metaphor once again, reframing a "problem" as a "dilemma" requiresleaders to search for and to identify the disease manifesting itself in the symptoms of organizational dysfunction. To do so, organizational leaders must have the courage tochallenge themselves and their followers as well to identify the problem as well to probeinto and beyond them if they are see clearly the deeper issue that the problemmanifests.
Ethical dilemmas...
An ethical dilemma emerges in a context of conflict between at least two goods(values) which require different responses.
 The conflict can be simple and straightforward, like a person who makesconflicting promises. What is that person to do? The conflict can be more complex, for example, when physicians and families agree that human life should not be prolongedand that unpreventable pain should not be tolerated. Just when should life support bewithdrawn? The conflict can also be very complex as Sartre (1957) noted in relating thestory of the student whose brother had been killed in the German offensive of 1940. Thestudent desired with all of his heart to avenge his brother's death and to fight the forceshe regarded as the incarnation of evil. But, the student's mother was living with him andhe was her sole consolation in life. The student was torn between two values. Onevalue was of limited scope but certain efficacy, that is, personal devotion to hismother. The second value was of wider scope but uncertain efficacy, that is, offeringone's services in an attempt to contribute to the defeat of an unjust aggressor.In such contexts, an agent views oneself as having ethical principles to pursueeach of at least two actions but doing so is not possible.The crucial elements of an ethical dilemma are these: the agent can performeach action and the agent cannot perform both or all of the actions. Thus, the agentappears to be condemned to ethical failure on at least one count because no matter what course of conduct the agent selects, this person will not do what virtue requires,namely, will fail to do something that the agent ought to do. However, when one of theethical requirements overrides another there is no genuine ethical dilemma. So, inaddition to the two elements already mentioned, in order to have a genuine ethicaldilemma, it must also be the case that none of the other conflicting values can beoverridden.Sartre's story about the student proves instructive in this regard. If the studentwas certain that he would make a difference in defeating the Germans, then theobligation to join the military would prevail. But, if the student would make little or nodifference whatsoever in the cause of the French, then his obligation to tend to hismother's needs would take precedence since there he is virtually certain to be helpful.Some ethicists have argued that solving an ethical dilemma involveshierarchically arranging the resolutions to the conflict of values, however many theremight be. In this scheme, the highest-ordered resolution always prevails, the secondprevails unless it conflicts with the first, and so on. This scheme is problematic,however, and on at least two counts. First: it is not credible to assert that values and theconduct required by them can be so neatly ordered. Keeping one's promises and notharming others clearly can conflict but it is not at all clear that one of these resolutions
should always prevail over the other. Second: where it possible to arrange values andthe conduct required by them hierarchically, it is entirely possible that the same valueand resolution can give rise to conflicting obligations (what ethicists call "symmetricalcases" [Sinnott-Armstrong, 1988]).William Styron invites his audience to enter just such a context in his novel,Sophie's Choice. A mother, Sophie, and her two children are interred in a Naziconcentration camp. A guard informs Sophie that one child will be killed and the other allowed to live. Her decision will save the life of one child but only by condemning theother to death. The context is further complicated by the guard who informs Sophie that,if she chooses neither child, then both will be killed. This piece of information providesSophie with an ethically compelling reason to choose one child; yet, Sophie has equallycompelling reasons to choose to save both. Thus, the value of preserving human lifegives rise to a genuine ethical dilemma.Ethical dilemmas present organizational leaders with two questions: "What oughtI do?" and "Why ought I do it?" It is likely that different organizational leaders will selectdifferent resolutions to an ethical dilemma presenting itself depending upon thesituation, intentions, and the circumstances. Because of this characteristic, someethicists (Kant, 1971; Mill, 1979; Ross, 1930, 1939) have argued that ethical theoryshould not allow for the possibility of a dilemma. That presupposes, of course, that thereexists only one choice concerning what ought to be done.
1.Invasion of Privacy
The wrongful intrusion into a person's private activities by other individuals or bythe government. Tort law protects one's private affairs with which the public has noconcern against unwarranted exploitation or publicity that causes mental suffering or humiliation to the average person. The right to be left alone is not always superior tothe rights of the public and it may or may not exist or may exist to a lesser degreewith regard to the life of a public figure, such as a politician or other person in whomthe public has a rightfulinterest.The right to personal privacy is encompassed as anaspect of liberty protected against government interference by the Constitution's dueprocess clause. Some of the personal decisions protected from unwarrantedgovernment interference include decisions relating to marriage, procreation,contraception, family relationships, child rearing, and education.
Incriminal law, theft is the illegal taking of another person'spropertywithout that person's freely-givenconsent. The word is also used as an informal shorthand termfor somecrimesagainst property, such asburglary,embezzlement,larceny,looting, robbery,shoplifting,fraudand sometimescriminal conversion. In some jurisdictions, theft is considered to besynonymouswithlarceny; in others, theft has replaced larceny.Someone who carries out an act of or makes a career of theft is known as a thief,and the act of theft is known as stealing, thieving, or sometimes filching.
Security is the degree of protection against danger, loss, and criminals.

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