world economy’. Those who have argued with some success for the abolition of regulatory trade barriers and capital controls have sometimes clothed this in the mantle of 'globalization'.
Globalization as universalization
.In this use, 'global' is used in the sense of being 'worldwide' and 'globalization' is 'the process of spreading various objects and experiences to people at all corners of the earth'. A classic exampleof this would be the spread of computing, television etc.
Globalization as westernization or modernization
Here 'globalization' is understood as a dynamic, 'whereby the social structures of modernity(capitalism, rationalism, industrialism, bureaucratism, etc.) are spread the world over, normallydestroying pre-existent cultures and local self-determination in the process.
Globalization as deterritorialization
Here 'globalization' entails a 'reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is no longer wholly mapped in terms of territorial places, territorial distances and territorial borders. AnthonyGiddens' has thus defined globalization as ' the intensification of worldwide social relationswhich link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurringmany miles away and vice versa. . David Held
define globalization as a ' process whichembodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions -assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact - generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows and networks of activity'.
The word "globalization" can be traced back to 1944. The term has been used byeconomists since 1981; however, its concepts did not permeate popular consciousnessuntil the later half of the 1990s. The earliest concepts and predictions of globalizationwere penned by an American entrepreneur-turned-minister Charles Taze Russell who firstcoined the term 'corporate giants' in 1897. Various social scientists have tried todemonstrate continuity between contemporary trends of globalization and earlier periods.The first era of globalization during the 19th century was the rapid growth of international trade between the European imperial powers, the European colonies, and theUnited States. After World War II, globalization was restarted and was driven by major advances in technology, which led to lower trading costs.Globalization is viewed as a century’s long process, tracking the expansion of human population and the growth of civilization that has accelerated dramatically in the past 50years. Early forms of globalization existed during the Roman Empire, the Parthianempire, and the Han Dynasty, when the Silk Road started in China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome. The IslamicGolden Age is also an example, when Muslim traders and explorers established an earlyglobal economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops, trade,knowledge and technology; and later during the Mongol Empire, when there was greater integration along the Silk Road. Global integration continued through the expansion of