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ADHD and LD Written Report

ADHD and LD Written Report

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Published by: tv186 on Feb 16, 2010
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08/01/2012

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Pearly Gwen V.LantajoBSOTIV
Intro clin 2
 LEARING DISABILITYATTENTION-DEFICITDISORDERS
 
ATTENTION-DEFICIT DISORDERS
ATTENTION-DEFICIT / HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Attention-deficit disorder is characterized by a developmentallyinappropriate poor attention span or age-inappropriate features of hyperactivity and impulsivity or both. To meet the diagnostic criteria thedisorder must be present for at least six months, cause impairment inacademic or social functioning, and occur before the age of 7 years.According to the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of MentalDisorders (DSM-IV), the diagnosis is made by confirming numeroussymptoms in the inattention domain or the hyperactivity-impulsivity domainor both. Thus a child may qualify for the disorder with symptom oinattention only or with symptom of hyperactivity and impulsivity but notinattention. Some children exhibit multiple symptoms along both dimensions.Accordingly, DSM-IV lists three subtypes of attention-deficit / hyperactivitydisorder: predominantly inattentive type, and combined type. And additionalcriterion in DSM-IV that was not present in the revised third edition of DSM(DSM-III-R) is the presence of symptoms in two or more situations, such as atschool, home, and work.Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder has been identified in theliterature for many years under a variety of terms. In the early 1900simpulsive, disinherited, and hyperactive children—many of whom hadneurological damage cause by encephalitis—were grouped under the label“hyperactive syndrome.” In the 1960s a heterogeneous group of childrenwith poor coordination, learning disabilities, and emotional labiality butwithout specific neurological damage were described as having minimalbrain damage. Since that time other hypotheses have been put forth toexplain the origin of the disorder, such as a genetically based conditionreflecting and abnormal level of arousal and poor ability to modulateemotions. That theory was initially supported by the observation thatstimulant medications help produce sustained attention and improve thechild’s ability to focus on a given task. Currently, no single factor is believedto cause the disorder, although many environmental variables maycontribute to it and many predictable clinical features re associated with it.
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E
PIDEMIOLOGY
 
Reports on the incidence of ADHD in the United States have variedfrom 2 to 20 percent of grade-school children. A conservative figure is about3 to 5 percent of prepubertal elementary school children. In Great Britain theincidence is reported to be lower than in the United States, less than 1percent. Boys have a greater incidence than do girls, with the ratio beingfrom 3 to 1 to as much as 5 to 1. The disorder is most common in first bornboys. The parents of children with ADHD show an increased incidence of hyper kinesis, sociopathy, alcohol use disorder. Although the onset is usuallyby the age of 3, the diagnosis is generally not made until the child is inelementary school and the formal learning situation requires structuredbehavior patterns, including developmentally appropriate attention span andconcentration.
E
TIOLOGY
 
 The causes of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorders are not known. The majority of children with ADHD do not show evidence of gross structuraldamage in the central nervous system (CNS). Conversely, most children withknown neurological disorders caused by brain injuries do not displayattention deficit and hyperactivity. Despite the lack of a specificneurophysiologic or neurochemical basis for the disorder, it is predictablyassociated with a variety of other disorders that affects brain function, suchas learning disorders. The suggested contributing factors for ADHD includeprenatal toxic exposures, prematurely, and prenatal mechanical insult to thefetal nervous system.Food additives, colorings, preservatives, and sugar have also beensuggested as possible causes of hyperactive behavior. No scientific evidenceindicates that those factors cause attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder. 
Genetic Factors.
Evidence for a genetic basis for attention-deficit / hyperactivitydisorder includes the greater concordance in monozygotic twins than indizygotic twins. Also, siblings of hyperactive children have about twice therisk of having the disorder as does the general population. One sibling mayhave predominantly inattention.
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