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Microwave in Organic Synthesis

Microwave in Organic Synthesis

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Published by: dr_cutecat on Feb 16, 2010
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07/10/2013

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AIN SHAMS UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF PHARMACY DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICALCHEMISTRY SECOND YEARPHARMACY 1
ST
SEMESTER
MICROWAVE INORGANICSYNTHESIS
EDITED BY 
4.
Shimaa SayedMohammad 262
5.
Shimaa Abd ElmgedIbrahem 264
6.
Shimaa Ali Saad265
1.
Doha AshourAbdulwahab 267
2.
Aliaa Adel Abdulsalam278 
 
INDEX
MICROWAVE IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
1
INTRODUCTON
32
GENERAL BRINCIBLES
4
THEORY OF MICROWAVE HEATING
1
DIPOLAR POLARIZATION
52
CONDUCTION MECHANISM
53
SUPERHEATING EFFECT 
64
SPECIFIC MW EFFECT 
75
MW EFFECT ON SELECTIVITY OF REACTION
86
MW- Accelerated Homogeneous Catalysis
9
APPLICATIONS
10
CONCLUSION
17
REFERENCES
18
2
 
Introduction
In 1986 Richard Gedye and coworkers published a shortcommunication in
Tetrahedron Letters
, entitled "The Use Of MicrowaveOvens for Rapid Organic Synthesis" which for the first time describedthe utilization and advantages of microwave irradiation for organicsynthesis . In this original publication four different types of reactionswere studied, including the hydrolysis of benzamide to benzoic acidunder acidic conditions (Scheme 1). Considerable rate increases (5 -1000 fold) were observed for all investigated transformations whencompared to classical thermal reflux conditions. The same year, anindependent study by the groups of Giguere and Majetich describingsimilar rate-enhancements in microwave-promoted Diels-Alder,Claisen, and ene reactions was published in the same journal .
Scheme 1
 The advantages of using microwave dielectric heating for performingorganic reactions were soon realized by many different groups and asa consequence the amount of articles describing high-speed chemicalsynthesis promoted by microwave irradiation has grown quickly from~200 in 1995 to ~1000 in 2001. In addition an unusually largenumber of review articles and commentaries (~60) has been publishedon this subject covering various aspects of microwave-assistedsynthesisImportantly, many of the early microwave-assisted reactions, such asthe process shown in Figure 1, were carried out in sealed Teflon orglass vessels using unmodified domestic household ovens . Due to thenature of microwave dielectric heating accurate temperaturemeasurements using conventional means of temperaturedetermination during the irradiation process were not possible at thetime. Therefore the reasons for the observed rate-enhancements werein many cases not fully understood and led to a lot of speculation andfierce debate on the existence of so-called non-thermal or specificmicrowave effects . Today, a variety of dedicated microwave reactors for chemicalsynthesis are commercially available that incorporate built-in magnetic
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