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normalization notes

normalization notes

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Published by mingichi

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Published by: mingichi on Feb 16, 2010
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Normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a database with twogoals in mindFirst goal: eliminate redundant data –for example, storing the same data in more than one tableSecond Goal: ensure data dependencies make sense – for example, only storing related data in a table
Benefits of Normalization
Less storage spaceQuicker updatesLess data inconsistencyClearer data relationshipsEasier to add dataFlexible Structure
Rules of Data Normalization
Eliminate Repeating Groups - Make a separate table for each set of relatedattributes, and give each table a primary key
Eliminate Redundant Data - If an attribute depends on only part of a multi-valued key, remove it to a separate table
Eliminate Columns Not Dependent On Key - If attributes do not contributeto a description of the key, remove them to a separate table
Boyce-Codd Normal Form - If there are non-trivial dependencies betweencandidate key attributes, separate them out into distinct tables
Isolate Independent Multiple Relationships - No table may contain two or more 1:n or n:m relationships that are not directly related
Isolate Semantically Related Multiple Relationships - There may be practicalconstrains on information that justify separating logically related many-to-manyrelationships.
EMPLOYEES_PROJECTS_TIMEA table with fields containing too much data.
Project Title
EN1-26Sean O'Brien30-452-T3, 30-457-T3, 32-244-T30.25, 0.40, 0.30STAR manualISO proceduresEmployee handbookEN1-33Amy Guya30-452-T3, 30-382-TC, 32-244-T30.05, 0.35, 0.60STAR manualWeb SiteNew catalogEN1-35Steven Baranco30-452-T3, 31-238-TC0.15, 0.80STAR manualSTAR prototypeEN1-36Elizabeth Roslyn35-152-TC0.90STAR pricingEN1-38Carol Schaaf36-272-TC0.75Order systemEN1-40Alexandra Wing31-238-TC, 31-241-TC0.20, 0.70STAR prototypeNew catalog
First Normal Form
 A table is in first normal form (1NF) if there are no repeating groups.
A repeating group is a set of logically related fields or values that occur multiple timesin one record.
Eliminate the repeating groups in the individual tables
Create a separate table for each set of related data.
Identify each set of related data with a primary keyA table with repeating groups of fields.
EN1-26O'BrienSean30-452-T3STAR manualEN1-26O'BrienSean30-457-T3ISO proceduresEN1-26O'BrienSean31-124-T3Employee handbook
EN1-33GuyaAmy30-452-T3STAR manualEN1-33GuyaAmy30-482-TCWeb SiteEN1-33GuyaAmy31-241-TCNew catalogEN1-35BarancoSteven30-452-T3STAR manualEN1-35BarancoSteven31-238-TCSTAR prototypeEN1-36RoslynElizabeth35-152-TCSTAR pricingEN1-38SchaafCarol36-272-TCOrder systemEN1-40WingAlexandra31-238-TCSTAR prototypeEN1-40WingAlexandra31-241-TCNew catalog
Second Normal Form (2NF)
A relation is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-key attribute is
functionally dependentupon the primary key.Take the table above and design new tables that will eliminate the repeated data in thenon-key fields.
To decide what fields belong together in a table, think about which fielddetermines the values in other fields. Create a table for those fields and enter thesample data.
Think about what the primary key for each table would be and about therelationship between the tables. If necessary, add foreign keys .
Mark the primary key for each table and make sure that you don't haverepeating data in non-key fields.EMPLOYEES 
*EmployeeIDLast NameFirst Name

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