Vibrations of Vertical Pressure Vessels
C. E. FREESE
Mechanical Engineer, TheFluor Corporation, Ltd., LosAngeles, Calif. Mem. ASME
For many years it was customary to apply guy wiresto tall ,slender pressure vessels. In, recent years, refinery andpetro-chemical officials have demanded self-supporting vesselsfrom the standpoint of plant appearance and safety.In order to design a self-supporting vessel of this type, thefollowing problems must be carefully analyzed:1 When it is necessary to deviate from the common practiceof designing a vertical vessel as a static structure and consider it asa dynamic structure?
Contributed by the Petroleum Division and presented at the ASMEPetroleum-Mechanical Engineering Conference, Denver, Colo., September21-24, 1958, of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICALENGINEERS.NOTE: Statements and opinions advanced in papers are to beunderstood as individual expressions of their authors and not those of theSociety. Manuscript received at ASME Headquarters, July 9, 1958. PaperNo. 58 - PET-13.
= lowest natural frequency of vibration,cycles per second
= = period of vibration, secg = acceleration due to gravity
= total weight of vessel or vessel sectionabove horizontal plane under construction, lb
= shear load at end of section, lb
= unit weight; lb/ftw' = weight of vessel element or internalpart, lb
= total length, ft
length of element or section, ft
= vessel diameter, ft
vessel diameter, in.
Journal of Engineering for Industry
This paper is primarily concerned with the vibration of vertical pressure vesselsknown as columns or towers
The procedure for estimating the period of first mode of vibration for columns whichare the same diameter and thickness for their entire length is outlined. A graph isincluded for this purpose which recommends limits between vessels considered to bestatic structures and those considered dynamic. A method for designing vessels considered as dynamic structures is described as wellas a detailed procedure for estimating the period of vibration of multithickness (stepped shell) vessels and/or vessels built to two or more diameters with conical transitions wherethe difference in diameter is small.There is a brief resume of the “Karman vortexes” effect and a discussion regardingvibration damping by liquid loading and the benefit of ladders and platforms which helpreduce the effect of periodic eddy shedding.The design procedure outlined will be useful to the practical vessel designer confronted with the task of investigating vibration possibilities in vertical pressurevessels.
2 What is the most practical method for designing to meetdynamic conditions?3 Does the method used produce consisten
results and does itprovide additional strength to resist the force due to the mass-acceleration resulting from the motion of the vessel ?4 Is the period of vibration of the dynamically designed vesselsuch that prevailing winds are not apt to cause excessivemovement?5 Are the external attachments ( such as piping, ladders, andplatforms) distributed all around the vessel to guard againstresonance due to eddy shedding in the “Karman vortex trail” atcritical wind velocities?These problems will be discussed during the outline of a designprocedure presented in this paper.Before proceeding, it should be pointed out that vesselvibrations induced by earthquakes are infrequent in occurrenceand this paper is more concerned with vibrations induced by windor other forces which may occur every day or many times duringthe day may depending upon the location.
= thickness of vessel shell, in
= = thickness of vessel shell, ft
= deflection of element or section, ft
= distance from e. g. of vessel element orinternal part (of weight
) to seam orhorizontal plane under consideration, ft
= seismic factor
= 4320 X 10
= modulus of elasticity forsteel, Ib/ft
E = welded joint efficiency
moment of inertia of vessel shellcross-sectional area, ft
= end slope of element in bending as acantilever beam, radian
= internal pressure, psigS = allowable stress of vessel material, psi
= moment about vessel seam orhorizontal plane under consideration, lb - ft
moment at end of vessel sectionresulting from weight of sections to the rightsection under considerationC = corrosion allowanceR = Reynolds number
FEBRUARY 1959 / 77