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Fluid Mechanics Cengel (solutions manual)Chap06-044Ratings: (0)|Views: 2,449|Likes: 36

Published by NURUL SYUHADA BT ISMAIL HAJAR

Published by: NURUL SYUHADA BT ISMAIL HAJAR on Feb 17, 2010

Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/26978427/Fluid-Mechanics-Cengel-solutions-manual-Chap06-044

03/12/2013

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Chapter 6

Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems

Angular Momentum Equation

6-44C

The angular momentum equation is obtained by replacing

B

in the Reynolds transport theorem bythe total angular momentum

sys

H

r

, and

b

by the angular momentum per unit mass

V r

rr

×

.

6-45C

The angular momentum equation in this case is expressed as

IV mr

r&rr

×−=

α

where

α

r

is the angular acceleration of the control volume, and

r

r

is the position vector from the axis of rotation to any point on theline of action of

F

r

.

6-46C

The angular momentum equation in this case is expressed as

IV mr

r&rr

×−=

α

where

α

r

is the angular acceleration of the control volume, and

r

r

is the position vector from the axis of rotation to any point on theline of action of

F

r

.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.

6-28

Chapter 6

Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems

6-47

Water is pumped through a piping section. The moment acting on the elbow for the cases of downward and upward discharge is to be determined.

Assumptions

1

The flow is steady and incompressible.

2

The water is discharged to the atmosphere, andthus the gage pressure at the outlet is zero.

3

Effects of water falling down during upward discharge isdisregarded.

4

Pipe outlet diameter is small compared to the moment arm, and thus we use average valuesof radius and velocity at the outlet.

Properties

We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m

3

.

Analysis

We take the entire pipe as the control volume, and designate the inlet by 1 and the outlet by 2. Wealso take the

x

and

y

coordinates as shown. The control volume and the reference frame are fixed.The conservation of mass equation for this one-inlet one-outlet steady flow system is, and

V mmm

&&&

==

21

V V

==

21

since

A

c

= constant. The mass flow rate and the weight of the horizontalsection of the pipe are

6-29

kg/s24.45)m/s4](4/m)12.0()[kg/m(1000

23

===

π ρ

V Am

c

&

N/m3.294
m/skg1 N1)m/s81.9)(m2)(kg/m(15

22

= ⋅==

mg W

(

a

)

Downward discharge

: To determine the moment acting on the pipe at point

A

, we need to take themoment of all forces and momentum flows about that point. This is a steady and uniform flow problem,and all forces and momentum flows are in the same plane. Therefore, the angular momentum equation inthis case can be expressed as

∑∑∑

−=

inout

V mr V mr M

&&

where

r

is the moment arm, all moments in thecounterclockwise direction are positive, and all in the clockwise direction are negative.

2

V m

r&

1

V m

r&

r

2

= 1 m

r

1

= 2 m

A

•

W

The free body diagram of the pipe section is given in the figure. Noting that the moments of allforces and momentum flows passing through point

A

are zero, the only force that will yield a moment about point

A

is the weight

W

of the horizontal pipe section, and the only momentum flow that will yield amoment is the outlet stream (both are negative since both moments are in the clockwise direction). Thenthe angular momentum equation about point

A

becomes

221

V mr W r M

A

&

−=−

Solving for

M

A

and substituting,

mN70.0

⋅−= ⋅=−=

2221

m/skg1 N1m/s)kg/s)(4m)(45.54(2- N)m)(294.31(

V mr W r M

A

&

The negative sign indicates that the assumed direction for

M

A

is wrong, and should be reversed. Therefore,a moment of 70 N

⋅

m acts at the stem of the pipe in the clockwise direction.(

b

)

Upward discharge

: The moment due to discharge stream is positive in this case, and the momentacting on the pipe at point

A

is

mN659

⋅= ⋅+=+=

2221

m/skg1 N1m/s)kg/s)(4m)(45.54(2 N)m)(294.31(

V mr W r M

A

&

Discussion

Note direction of discharge can make a big difference in the moments applied on a pipingsystem. This problem also shows the importance of accounting for the moments of momentums of flowstreams when performing evaluating the stresses in pipe materials at critical cross-sections.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.

Chapter 6

Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems

6-48E

A two-armed sprinkler is used to generate electric power. For a specified flow rate and rotationalspeed, the power produced is to be determined.

gal/s8

total

=

m

&

jet

V

jet

V

ω

Electricgenerator

r

V m

nozzle

&

r

V m

nozzle

&

r

= 2 ft

•

shaft

Assumptions

1

The flow is cyclically steady (i.e., steady from a frame of reference rotating with thesprinkler head).

2

The water is discharged to the atmosphere, and thus the gage pressure at the nozzle outletis zero.

3

Generator losses and air drag of rotating components are neglected.

4

The nozzle diameter issmall compared to the moment arm, and thus we use average values of radius and velocity at the outlet.

Properties

We take the density of water to be 62.4 lbm/ft

3

.

Analysis

We take the disk that encloses the sprinkler arms as the control volume, which is a stationarycontrol volume. The conservation of mass equation for this steady flow system is

m

. Notingthat the two nozzles are identical, we have

mm

&&&

==

21

2/

nozzle

mm

&&

=

or since the density of water is constant. The average jet outlet velocity relative to the nozzle is

2/

nozzle

total

V V

&&

=

ft/s2.392
gal480.7
ft1]4/ft)12/5.0([
gal/s4

32 jetnozzle jet

= ==

π

AV

V

&

The angular and tangential velocities of the nozzles areft/s 52.36rad/s)ft)(26.182(
rad/s26.18s60min1rev/min)250(22

nozzle

==== ==

ω π π ω

r V n

&

The velocity of water jet relative to the control volume (or relative to a fixed location on earth) isft/s8.33936.522.392

nozzle jet

=−=−=

V V V

r

The angular momentum equation can be expressed as

∑∑∑

−=

inout

V mr V mr M

&&

where allmoments in the counterclockwise direction are positive, and all in the clockwise direction are negative.Then the angular momentum equation about the axis of rotation

becomes

r

V mr M

nozzleshaft

2

&

−=−

or

r

V mr M

totalshaft

&

=

Substituting, the torque transmitted through the shaft is determined to beftlbf 1409ft/slbm32.2lbf 1ft/s).8lbm/s)(339ft)(66.742(

2totalshaft

⋅= ⋅==

r

V mr M

&

since . Then the power generated becomeslbm/s74.66)/sft480.7/8)(lbm/ft (62.4

33totaltotal

===

V

&&

ρ

m

kW50.0

= ⋅⋅===

ft/slbf 737.56kW1ft)lbf 09rad/s)(1418.26(2

shaftshaft

M M nW

ω π

&&

Therefore, this sprinkler-type turbine has the potential to produce 50 kW of power.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL

. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, youare using it without permission.

6-30

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